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CARB Low NOX Stage 3 Program - Aftertreatment Evaluation and Down Selection

Southwest Research Institute-Bryan Zavala, Christopher Sharp, Gary Neely, Sandesh Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1402
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the conclusion of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Stage 1 Ultra-Low NOX program, there continues to be a commitment for identifying potential pathways to demonstrate 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. The Stage 1 program focused on achieving the Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels utilizing a turbo-compound (TC) engine, which required the integration of novel catalyst technologies and a supplemental heat source. While the aftertreatment configuration provided a potential solution to meet the ULN target, a complicated approach was required to overcome challenges from low temperature exhaust. The Stage 3 program leverages a different engine architecture more representative of the broader heavy-duty industry to meet the Phase 2 GHG targets and to simplify the ULN aftertreatment solution. The following work will discuss the aftertreatment technology evaluation, down selection criteria, and the emission results of the final demonstration aftertreatment system for a heavy-duty on-highway ULN application. As part of these efforts, the demonstration system was subjected to accelerated hydrothermal and chemical aging exposure utilizing the Diesel Aftertreatment Accelerated Aging Cycles (DAAAC) protocol. The accelerated aging methodology and…
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A controls overview on achieving ultra-low NOx​

Southwest Research Institute-Sandesh Rao, Jayant Sarlashkar, Sankar Rengarajan, Christopher Sharp, Gary Neely
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1404
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded Stage 3 Heavy-Duty Low NOx program focusses on evaluating different engine and after-treatment technologies to achieve 0.02g/bhp-hr of NOx emission over certification and low load cycles. This paper highlights the controls architecture of the engine and after-treatment systems and discusses the effects of various strategies implemented and tested in an engine test cell over heavy-duty drive cycles. A cylinder deactivation enabled engine was integrated with an after-treatment system consisting of a Light-Off Selective Catalytic Reduction (LO-SCR) system with a heated urea dosing system which was located close to the turbine outlet, a Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF), and a main SCR system with single point urea dosing. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) had developed a model-based controller for the main SCR system in the Stage 1 Low-NOx program. The chemical kinetics for the model-based controller were further tuned and implemented in this program to better simulate the reactions in the Stage 3 SCR system. Novel dosing, and ammonia storage management strategies created along with the model-based controls were critical in…
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Simultaneous NOX and CO2 Reduction for Meeting Future CARB Standards Using a Heavy-Duty Diesel CDA-NVH Strategy

SAE International Journal of Engines

Eaton, USA-Matthew Pieczko, James E. McCarthy
Southwest Research Institute, USA-Gary Neely, Chris Sharp
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0014
Published 2019-12-10 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel consumption standards, improve diesel aftertreatment (AT) system performance, and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Simultaneous reductions in both CO2 and NOX emissions will be required to meet the upcoming regulatory targets for both EPA Phase 2 Greenhouse Gas Standards and new Low NOX Standards being proposed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB). In addition, CARB recently proposed a new certification cycle that will require high NOX conversion while vehicles are operating at lower loads than current regulatory cycles require. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) offers a powerful technology lever for meeting these two regulatory targets on commercial diesel engines. There have been numerous works in the past year showing the benefits of diesel CDA for elevating exhaust temperatures during low-load operation where it is normally too cold for AT to function at peak efficiency. At the same time, CO2 and fuel consumption are reduced through a combination of lower pumping and friction losses and improved thermal efficiency in the cylinders that are still firing. However, CDA has…
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Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine and an Advanced Technology Emissions System - Thermal Management Strategies

SAE International Journal of Engines

ARB-Michael Carter, Seungju Yoon
Low Emission Technology Solutions-Cynthia C. Webb
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0954
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The most recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a tailpipe limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details the thermal management strategies employed by the engine and supplemental exhaust heat addition device as was needed to achieve Ultra-Low NOX levels on a heavy-duty diesel engine with an advanced technology aftertreatment solution Further development is necessary for optimizing vocational test cycle emissions, but the results presented here demonstrate a potential pathway to achieving ultra-low NOX emissions on future heavy duty vehicles.
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Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine and an Advanced Technology Emissions System - NOX Management Strategies

SAE International Journal of Engines

ARB-Seungju Yoon
Low Emission Technology Solutions-Cynthia C. Webb
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0958
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, CARB has projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details engine and aftertreatment NOX management requirements and model based control considerations for achieving Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels with a heavy-duty diesel engine. Data are presented for several Advanced Technology aftertreatment solutions and the integration of these solutions with the engine calibration. Further development is necessary for optimizing vocational test cycle emissions, but the results presented here demonstrate a potential pathway to achieving ultra-low NOX emissions on future heavy duty vehicles.
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A Novel Approach for Diesel NOX/PM Reduction

Southwest Research Institute-Stefan Simescu, Vlad Ulmet, Gary Neely, Magdi Khair
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The US EPA emission standards for 2010 on-highway and 2014 non-road diesel engines are extremely stringent, both in terms of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and particulate matter (PM). Diesel engines typically operate lean and use at least 40-50 percent more air than what is needed for stoichiometric combustion of the fuel. As a result, significant excess oxygen (O₂) is present in diesel exhaust gas which prevents the application of the mature three-way catalyst (TWC) technology for NOX control used in gasoline engines.The objective of this work was to investigate whether or not the catalyzed DPF had a TWC-type of effect on NOX emissions and if so, why and to what extent when used on a diesel engine operating at reduced A/F ratio conditions. The approach was a two-step test plan: first to reduce the operating A/F ratio of the engine, close to stoichiometric, with an acceptable engine-out smoke increase; second, to investigate the possibility of using the catalyzed DPF (cDPF) as a PM/NOX control device at low A/F ratio operation.Low A/F ratio operation, close to…
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