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Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2496
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission. Lower soot emission will leads to smaller exhaust after-treatment size. There is trade-off between higher cost due to hybridization and lower cost due to lower after-treatment size. A cost…
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Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
Hybrid Vehicle-Jaipal Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2495
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement. For Parallel hybrid configuration, Comprehensive approach was developed for selection & optimization of degree of hybridization required as per Off-Highway tractor application requirement. Architecture selection approach considers the way to take care of % increase of cost price with conventional tractor, market availability of components, Integration constraints, fuel consumption, and efficiency of transmission & smooth delivery of power as required by operator. 2.For above…
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Engine Valve Train Dynamic Analysis using 1-D Simulation Approach

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2422
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce engine development timing and cost, a numerical calculation used to evaluate valve train systems. This paper discusses the work done on kinematic and dynamic analysis of Valve Train (VT) system of a diesel engine by using 1-D Ricardo Valdyn software. The goal is to meet optimum intake, exhaust valve timing requirement, maximize valve open area and 20% overspeed requirement. Valve train model is prepared and inputs like mass and stiffness are estimated from actual weighing and finite element approach respectively. Simulation model is used for predicting valve bounce speed, valve displacement, cam-follower contact stress and strain in the rocker arm. Initially, Kinematic analysis is carried out to study the change in valve motion characteristics such as cam contour radius, tappet contact eccentricity etc. Further to this, dynamic analysis is carried out to assess forces and stresses on valve train components. Effect of cam tappet contact stresses, buckling load on push rod, spring surge, ratio of spring force to inertia force, valve seating velocity at increased speed condition etc. are discussed in…
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Optimizing Cooling Fan Power Consumption for Improving Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency Using CFD Technique

SAE International Journal of Engines

Tafe Motors and Tractor Ltd., India-Ajay Nain
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0024
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
Fan cooling system of an air-cooled diesel engine is optimized using 3D CFD numerical simulation approach. The main objective of this article is to increase engine fuel efficiency by reducing fan power consumption. It is achieved by optimizing airflow rates and flow distribution over the engine surfaces to keep the maximum temperature of engine oil and engine surfaces well within the lubrication and material limit, respectively, at the expense of lower fan power. Based on basic fan laws, a bigger fan consumes lesser power for the same airflow rate as compared to a smaller fan, provided both fans have similar efficiency. Flow analysis is also conducted with the engine head and block modeled as solid medium and fan cooling system as fluid domain. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence (RANS) equations were solved to get the flow field inside the cooling system and on the engine liner fins. The Moving Reference Frame approach was used for simulating the rotation of a fan. Cowl geometry was modified for providing better guidance to flow over engine surfaces and to get…
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Experimental and Simulation Analysis of Natural Aspirated Diesel Engine for Fuel Economy Improvement

Tafe Motors and Tractor Ltd.-Ajay Nain
Published 2019-03-20 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents the investigation of the engine fuel efficiency improvement using one-dimensional (1D) simulation software Ricardo Wave. The study is carried out for a baseline multicylinder direct-injection naturally aspirated diesel engine of 2945 cc meeting CPCB-II emission norms. Initially base simulation model is calibrated and good correlation is observed between experimental and simulation results for parameters like airflow rate and engine power cylinder pressure. Engine breathing capability, i.e. volumetric efficiency, is improved by optimizing intake pipes, intake ports and cam events. Cam-lobe profile is optimized keeping consideration of gen-set/tractor application. Optimum hardware improved engine pumping losses which results in better fuel efficiency on various load points. It meets CPCB-II emission norms.
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Performance Optimization of a 4 Cylinder, 5.3L, DI Diesel Engine for Power, Torque and Emission Level Up-Gradation Using 1-D Thermodynamic Simulation

Ashok Leyland Ltd.-Ajay Nain, Bhabani S. Panigrahi, Balaji Bandaru, S. K. Pandey, N. Muralitharan
Published 2011-10-06 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
In the present work, a 4 cylinder, 5.3 liter, Direct Injection Diesel engine producing 140 kW rated power was upgraded to a higher power rating of 170 kW complying with Euro V emission norm. The exhaust after treatment strategy was changed from Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR).1-D thermodynamic simulation was used to simulate the performance. The simulation model was calibrated for performance parameters with the test results available from the 140 kW engine. This model was used to carry out the turbocharger matching for the 170 kW engine using the Simplified and Full Turbocharger model. A parametric study was carried out for the variables like Compression ratio, Start of Combustion shift and Compressor pressure ratio in view of the target Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) and Peak firing pressure limits. The finalized model parameters were used for carrying out a Full throttle and Part throttle performance at selected operating points. An altitude simulation was carried out to see the turbocharger performance at an altitude of 1500 m.Simulation of Pollutant formation was…
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Euro-3 Compliant Diesel Engine Using a Cost Effective Fuel Injection Pump without Electronics

Ashok Leyland-P. Sahaya Surendira Babu, P. A. Lakshminarayanan, K. L. S. Setty, N. Augustin Selvakumar, R. Karthik, G. Srinivasan, Ajay Nain, Santosh Pendalwar, P. Mahesh
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Emission norms are introduced to limit exhaust pollutants from vehicular engines to improve and control ambient air quality. Thermodynamic simulation results showed the possibility of upgradation from Euro-2 to Euro-3 emission norms using a low pressure inline fuel injection pump. Geometric parameters of piston bowl, injection nozzle were adjusted and the combustion parameters like swirl start of injection, controlled injection and jet penetration were fine tuned to achieve the emission norms using the cost effective inline fuel injection pump. This fuel injection system is tolerant to indifferent fuel quality as it is lubricated by engine oil and the clearances within the pump do not demand exceptional lubricity or cleanliness of the fuel. The exhaust is polished off soluble organic fractions, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons using a lightly loaded diesel oxidation catalyst that is tolerant to 500 ppm sulphur in fuel. Data from 20 engines showed emission is consistent. Experiments in the field showed the new Euro-3 engines are equal in fuel economy to the Euro-2 engines.
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