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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp Ltd-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studi-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.
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Experimental Studies on Butanol/Gasoline Fuel Blends in a Four Stroke Engine Powered Motorcycle

Indian Oil Corp. Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, Neeraj Kumar, Mrinmoy Kalita, M. Sithananthan, Ved Singh
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Butanol is one of the potential alternative fuels that can be used in IC engines in the same way as gasoline. This paper investigates the application of butanol as a blending component for gasoline fuel used in single cylinder four stroke motorcycle engine. Different blending ratio of 5, 10, 20 & 30% butanol-gasoline prepared were used for the study. The motorcycle engine tested on the chassis dynamometer had displacement of 100 cm3. The performance testing under steady state were simulated by running the vehicle on road load simulation and wide open throttle test modes at steady speeds of 40, 50, 60 and 70 km/h. The fuels were also examined using transient Indian Driving Cycle. The test results indicated that butanol-gasoline blended fuel can be a promising alternate for automotive application.
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Field Evaluation on the Performance Characteristics of 10% Ethanol Gasoline blends in Four Stroke Engine Powered Two Wheelers

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, Mrinmoy Kalita, M. Sithananthan, Ved Singh, A. K. Sehgal, B. Basu, R. K. Malhotra
Published 2013-01-09 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Two Wheeler segment being the largest segment for consumption of Gasoline in India, a study was taken-up for establishing the effectiveness of 10% Ethanol in normal and branded gasoline for its use on 4 stroke engine powered two wheelers. This paper presents the test work done on four identical four stroke engine powered two wheelers, one each on neat normal and branded gasoline and their blends with 10% ethanol. Mileage build-up of 15,000 km was carried out on road as well as on chassis dynamometer with intermittent performance test at 5000 km interval, used engine oil sample analysis at regular interval and merit rating of engine components at the end of the trials.
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Evaluation of a Novel Biofuel Blend using Diesel-Biodiesel-Ethanol on Light Commercial Vehicle

Indian Oil Corp.-M. Muralidharan, M. Subramanian, P. C. Kanal, R. K. Malhotra
Published 2011-10-06 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Use of biofuels derived from biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, etc., are being seriously viewed from multidimensional perspective of depleting fossil fuel resources, environmental health, energy security, agrarian economy and new avenues of gainful employment. For the best use of available biofuels in diesel, a new blend was prepared which constituted 85% diesel + 5% ethanol + 10% biodiesel and was evaluated on Light Commercial Vehicle. This paper discusses the systematic performance evaluation of blended fuels and is compared with neat diesel with respect to lubricity, fuel economy in the steady speed ranges of 40 - 70 km/hr, driving cycle fuel economy, exhaust emissions like CO, HC, CO₂, O₂, NOx, smoke and characterization of particulates including particle size distribution. Synergy of 5% ethanol + 10% biodiesel in diesel was compared with diesel when the fuel was used as individual blends. The test results of these blends showed reduction in NOx emissions in WOT condition and increase in HC emissions both in RLS & WOT condition. The average particulates diameter and mass decreases with 5% ethanol and 5%…
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Characterisation of Particulates with Different Blends of Ethanol-Gasoline in Two Wheelers

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Research and Development Centre, Faridabad, India-M. Muralidharan, M. Subramanian, P. C. Kanal, R. K. Malhotra
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Part substitution of alcohol in gasoline alters the composition and combustion characteristics leading to different particulates as emitted by individual fuel. This paper presents the test work done on characterisation of particulate number concentration emitted from four stroke engine powered two wheeler with neat Euro III gasoline and its blend with ethanol (5, 10, 20 & 30 %) using Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The characterisation of particulates was carried out under different operating conditions viz. Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Road Load Simulation (RLS) and Wide Open Throttle (WOT) conditions on Chassis Dynamometer with the test fuels. It was observed from the study that for all the test fuels, the number concentration increases as the particulate size reduces. Further, it was observed that addition of ethanol in neat Euro III gasoline has reduced the particulate number concentration both in transient and steady speed conditions.
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Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Vehicles~Experimental Investigations

Indian Oil Corporation-M. Subramanian, M. Muralidharan, P. C. Kanal, R. K. Malhotra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-08-0238
Published 2006-05-01 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper describes the vehicle performance with respect to power and fuel economy under different blend ratios of biodiesel on different class of vehicles. It was observed that the fuel economy has increased with increase in mileage build-up and blend ratio of biodiesel blend up to 10%. Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) is a major emission from diesel engines. Particulate matter from diesel and biodiesel on different types of diesel vehicles have been measured and characterized for particle size distribution and chemical compositions. It is also observed that their number concentrations have decreased with increase in biodiesel substitution. Injector conditions with diesel and biodiesel were monitored by injector airflow measurements and visual inspection of injector components.
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Use of Pongamia Biodiesel in CI Engines for Rural Application

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India-M. Muralidharan, Mathew P. Thariyan, Sumit Roy, J.P. Subrahmanyam, P.M.V. Subbarao
Published 2004-01-16 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
To meet the twin problems of Fuel scarcity and air pollution caused by the growing use of fossil fuels many countries are using alternative renewable, clean burning fuels in motor vehicles. Biodiesel is one of the most important alternative fuels. An attempt has been made in this paper to give an overview of the application of Pongamia biodiesel in CI Engines, by comparing its performance and smoke density with conventional diesel fuel.
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