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Muralidharan, M
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Experimental Studies on n-Butanol/Gasoline Fuel Blends in Passenger Car for Performance and Emission

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.-Mrinmoy Kalita, M Muralidharan, M Subramanian, M Sithananthan, Anil Yadav, Vivekanand Kagdiyal, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R Suresh
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
In the current scenario of global emissions, growing demand for petroleum fuels and highly volatile crude prices, the current usage of petroleum fuel must be curbed to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and to reduce environmental pollution several alternative fuels are being explored. Butanol is one of the potential alternative fuels that can be used in IC engines in the same way of conventional fuels for reducing conventional fuels. An experimental study was conducted to establish the impact of n-butanol as a blending component for gasoline fuel in passenger car on chassis dynamometer. Commercial gasoline meeting Euro-IV fuel standards was used as the base fuel while n-butanol was used as the blending component in the ratio of 5, 10 & 20% by volume. The vehicle was tested on chassis dynamometer for fuel evaluation in respect of fuel economy, regulated and un-regulation emissions under standard driving cycle of NEDC. The results indicated that fuel economy decreased with 5% -20% n-butanol blend in range of 0.6 to 3% as compared to neat gasoline under transient condition. CO…
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Investigation on the Effect of 5% Biodiesel -Diesel Blend on Heavy Duty Buses: With Different Aspiration Technologies in Respect of Vehicle Performance

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre-M Muralidharan, M Subramanian, P C Kanal, R K Malhotra
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel derived from non-edible vegetable oils/tree borne oils hold potential for meeting India's future energy needs by part substitution of Diesel Fuel. This paper investigates performance of 5% blend of commercially available biodiesel (B5) in diesel as fuel for heavy duty vehicles. The test fuel was evaluated on buses with different aspiration technologies viz. naturally aspirated and turbo charged, and the same was compared with neat commercial diesel under different operating conditions like driving cycle, road load simulation (RLS) and wide open throttle (WOT) on chassis dynamometer for power, fuel economy, smoke and soot particle number concentration. Fuel economy was observed to be comparable with B5 in naturally aspirated bus while better fuel economy was observed in case of Turbo charged bus with B5. However, there was a marginal drop in the WOT power (vehicle) with B5 fuel in naturally aspirated bus while the drop was higher with Turbo charged bus. In general the particle number concentration with naturally aspirated bus was higher than turbo charged bus.
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Development of Delhi Driving Cycle: A Tool for Realistic Assessment of Exhaust Emissions from Passenger Cars in Delhi

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre-Sachin Chugh, Prashant Kumar, M Muralidharan, Mukesh Kumar B, M Sithananthan, Anurag Gupta, Biswajit Basu, Ravinder Kumar Malhotra
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Human health is the driving force for setting the Ambient Air Quality Standards for the country. As per Auto Fuel Policy released by Govt. of India, Air Quality Monitoring and Source Apportionment Studies were initiated in six cities. Apart from determining emission data from other sources, the assessment of automotive emission inventory was done by conducting the emission testing on vehicles of different categories and vintages following a driving cycle. India has been following Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) adopted from European driving cycle which may not give a realistic assessment of vehicular emissions in laboratory as compared to on-road emissions. The variation could be due to different traffic density, land-use patterns, road infrastructure and traffic management encountered in India as compared to Europe.This paper presents the evolution of Driving Cycle developed for passenger cars in Delhi. The entire exercise was divided into 5 major components including selection of representative routes, vehicles, measuring instruments, data analysis methodology and validation of final driving cycle. Seven routes were selected considering Home-to-Work trips covering major landmarks and traffic…
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Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Spark Ignition Engine Driven Vehicles with Different Fuels

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R & D Centre, Faridabad-M Subramanian, M Muralidharan, P C Kanal, R K Malhotra
Published 2008-01-09 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
This study focused on the small size nano-particulates that pose the greatest risk to human health for which significant uncertainties remain. Diesel engine powered vehicles are generally considered to be primary contributors of particulate matter and consequent health hazards as compared to particulates emitted by gasoline and gas driven vehicles.This paper discusses the findings of particulate emissions with respect to number and size distribution with variables like lubrication system, different fuels on 2-wheelers and 3-wheeler auto rickshaw using electrically low pressure impactor (ELPI). Analysis of particulates with CVS system and direct tail pipe were also done for highlighting the ambiguity in both the measurements.Particle number concentration was found more in the two-stroke engine powered two wheelers. Within two-stroke engine powered is also, this concentration was higher in case of two-stroke engines equipped with auto lube lubrication system as compared to premix lubrication system. Four Stroke engine running on Euro III gasoline has shown large number of particles in the size range of 0-0.48 microns. However, the size and number concentration reduced with blending of 5%…
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Characterization of Particulates with Different Blends of Bio-Fuels in Light Commercial Vehicle

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R & D Centre, Faridabad, India-M Subramanian, M Muralidharan, P C Kanal, R K Malhotra
Published 2005-10-23 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
This paper covers the test work done on the comparative characterization of particulates using different blends of biofuels (like biodiesel and ethanol in diesel fuel) in light commercial vehicle under different operating conditions. The test vehicle selected was equipped with Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine with inline fuel injection pump. Under transient operating condition (Indian Driving Cycle), the results indicate that with increased percentage of biodiesel (upto 20%) in the blend, particulate concentration decreases. However, with 5% ethanol diesel blend, particulate concentration increases when compared with neat diesel as well as biodiesel blends while mass concentrations are lower with both the biofuels as compared to neat diesel. It is observed that the nanoparticles are higher with 5% ethanol diesel in IDC test mode. From the results of this work, it is observed that amongst the biofuels i.e. ethanol and biodiesel, biodiesel is a synergistic blending component for diesel for reducing mass and number of nanoparticles in DI engine powered vehicle.
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