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Using Transmission Data to Isolate Individual Losses in Coastdown Road Load Coefficients

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1064
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, multiple transmissions have been benchmarked to determine their efficiency during operation. The benchmarking included a modified “coastdown test,” with the transmission on an engine dynamometer, to measure the transmission output drag as a function of speed while in neutral. The transmission drag data can be represented in quadratic form, similar to that used for vehicle coastdown test results, as F0 + F1V + F2V2, where V is the vehicle velocity. When evaluating the transmission test data, the relationships among the three coefficients found to be highly predictable, and in some cases the magnitude of the coefficients were quite large. Additionally, for some tested transmissions the deviation between the quadratic regression and the measured drag at individual velocities can be significant. To evaluate the effect of transmission losses in vehicle coastdown tests, the coastdown and dynamometer coefficients were pulled from the EPA’s published “Data on Cars used for Testing Fuel Economy” for an entire…
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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry UB80E Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1286
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry front wheel drive eight-speed automatic transmission was benchmarked. The benchmarking data were used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.ALPHA requires both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission torque loss maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has developed a streamlined, cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This testing methodology targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over EPA’s city and highway drive cycles.With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling the transmission components and testing each separately. This paper describes the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data and the test results obtained. A UB80E eight-speed automatic transmission from a 2018 Toyota Camry was installed in an engine dynamometer test…
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Constructing Engine Maps for Full Vehicle Simulation Modeling

US Environmental Protection Agency-Paul Dekraker, Daniel Barba, Andrew Moskalik, Karla Butters
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected a variety of engine and vehicle test data to assess the effectiveness of new automotive technologies in meeting greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emission standards and to monitor their behavior in real world operation. EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate GHG emissions from vehicles using various combinations of advanced technologies and has been refined using data from testing conducted at EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory.This paper describes a process for constructing complete engine maps using engine dynamometer and in-vehicle test data for use in ALPHA or any other full vehicle simulation which performs similar analyses. The paper reviews how to use available steady state and transient test data to characterize different operating conditions, and then combine the data to construct a complete engine map suitable for ALPHA model simulation. The paper also discusses the use of default values when specific engine test data are unavailable. Finally, tools used to assess the quality of the generated complete engine maps are…
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Characterization of GHG Reduction Technologies in the Existing Fleet

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education-Brandon Mikkelsen
US Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin Bolon, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Aaron Hula, Anthony Neam
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
By almost any definition, technology has penetrated the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet significantly in conjunction with the increased stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions regulations. The physical presence of advanced technology components provides one indication of the efforts taken to reduce emissions, but that alone does not provide a complete measure of the benefits of a particular technology application. Differences in the design of components, the materials used, the presence of other technologies, and the calibration of controls can impact the performance of technologies in any particular implementation. The effectiveness of a technology for reducing emissions will also be influenced by the extent to which the technologies are applied towards changes in vehicle operating characteristics such as improved acceleration, or customer features that may offset mass reduction from the use of lightweight materials.This paper begins with an examination of trends in the penetration of key advanced technologies into the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. We then investigate the overall influence of these technologies and vehicle changes on tailpipe CO2 emissions using metrics for powertrain efficiency…
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Representing GHG Reduction Technologies in the Future Fleet with Full Vehicle Simulation

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Bolon, Kevin Newman, Jeff Cherry
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1273
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of an ongoing assessment of the potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of light-duty vehicles, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented an updated methodology for applying the results of full vehicle simulations to the range of vehicles across the entire fleet. The key elements of the updated methodology explored for this article, responsive to stakeholder input on the EPA’s fleet compliance modeling, include (1) greater transparency in the process used to determine technology effectiveness and (2) a more direct incorporation of full vehicle simulation results.This article begins with a summary of the methodology for representing existing technology implementations in the baseline fleet using EPA’s Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) full vehicle simulation. To characterize future technologies, a full factorial ALPHA simulation of every conventional technology combination to be considered was conducted. The vehicle simulation results were used to automatically generate response surface equations (RSEs), enabling the use of a quick and easily implemented set of specific equations to estimate fleet-wide emissions in place of running time-consuming full vehicle…
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Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul, Daniel Barba, Joseph McDonald, Stanislav Bohac, Paul Dekraker, Andrew Moskalik
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0319
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.This article documents the test results for idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation, as well as motoring torque, wide-open throttle (WOT) torque, and fuel consumption during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels. Particular attention is given to characterizing enrichment control during high load engine operation. Results are used to create complete engine fuel consumption and efficiency maps and estimate CO2…
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Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

EPA Office of Mobile Sources-Mark Stuhldreher
US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba
Published 2017-11-17 by SAE International in United States
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This technique targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over the EPA city and highway drive cycles.This paper describes the method and test results of the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data. With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling…
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Fleet-Level Modeling of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emission Simulation in ALPHA

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Environmental Protection Agency-Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0899
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model.In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. Simulations conducted with ALPHA provide data on the effectiveness of various GHG reduction technologies, and reveal synergies that exist between technologies. The ALPHA model has been validated against a variety of vehicles with different powertrain configurations and GHG reduction technologies.This paper will present an overview of the laboratory benchmarking that was done to support validation of the ALPHA model. The paper discusses a variety of real world factors that influence the simulation of fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked. Updates have been made to the ALPHA model to…
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Investigating the Effect of Advanced Automatic Transmissions on Fuel Consumption Using Vehicle Testing and Modeling

SAE International Journal of Engines

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Aaron Hula, Daniel Barba, John Kargul
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1142
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is refining and revalidating their Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model.As part of the validation of ALPHA, the EPA obtained model year 2014 Dodge Chargers equipped with 3.6 liter V6 engines and either a NAG1 five-speed automatic transmission or an 845RE eight-speed automatic transmission. Vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer; test results showed eight-speed vehicles averaging 6.5% reduction in unadjusted combined city-highway fuel consumption compared to five-speed vehicles. In addition, an 845RE eight-speed transmission was obtained and tested in a standalone transmission test rig. The measured transmission parameters were used in ALPHA to simulate the behavior and fuel consumption of the eight-speed Dodge Charger. A companion…
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Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model

US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. From its database of engine and vehicle benchmarking data EPA identified the most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to model a midsized car incorporating combinations of these existing technologies which minimize GHG emissions. In a similar analysis, ALPHA was used to estimate the GHG emissions from future low-GHG technology packages potentially available in model year 2025. This paper presents the ALPHA model inputs, results and the lessons learned during this modeling…
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