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Morrow, R. C.
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Education Payload Operations Kit C: A Miniature, Low ESM Hobby Garden for Space-Based Educational Activities

NASA Johnson Space Center-J. D. Neubauer
Orbital Technologies Corporation-R. C. Morrow, J. T. Iverson, R. C. Manzke, L. K. Tuominen
Published 2007-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The wonder of space exploration is a sure way to catch the attention of students of all ages, and space biology is one of many sciences critical to understanding the spaceflight environment. Many systems used in the past for space-to-classroom biology activities have required extensive crew time and material resources, making space-linked education logistically and financially difficult. The new Education Payload Operations Kit C (EPO Kit C) aims to overcome obstacles to space-linked education and outreach by dramatically reducing the resources required for educational activities in plant space biology that have a true spaceflight component. EPO Kit C is expected to be flown from STS-118 to the International Space Station in June 2007. NASA and several other organizations are currently planning an outreach program to complement the flight of EPO Kit C.
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A Low Equivalent System Mass Plant Growth Unit for Space Exploration

Orbital Technologies Corporation-R. C. Morrow, R.W. Remiker, M. J. Mischnick, L.K. Tuominen, M.C. Lee, T.M. Crabb
Published 2005-07-11 by SAE International in United States
The VEGGIE unit is a deployable, low-resource plant growth system that can provide a source of fresh food and crew recreation on long duration space missions. VEGGIE can be stowed in 10% of its deployed volume; a single middeck locker equivalent can stow 1.0m2 of growing area. To reduce complexity, VEGGIE utilizes the ambient environment for temperature control and as a source of CO2. The lighting subsystem uses LEDs that provide a minimum light level of 300 µmol m−2s−1, spectral quality control, and a long operating life in a low profile package. The root zone is a compressible fabric mat. Each VEGGIE module has 0.17 m2 of growing area and can be varied in height from 5 to 45 cm. The mass, including the lighting subsystem and root mat, is 4.7 kg. On the ISS, VEGGIE can mount in the aisle, or in an EXPRESS rack.
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Biomass Production System (BPS) Technology Validation Test Results

Orbital Technologies Corporation-R. C. Morrow, J. T. Iverson, R. C. Richter, J. J. Stadler
Published 2004-07-19 by SAE International in United States
The objective of the BPS Technology Validation Test (TVT) flown on the ISS as part of Increment 4 was to verify the functionality of environmental control subsystems and to measure the ability of the BPS to support plant growth and development in microgravity. Additional TVT objectives included validation of information acquisition systems, operations and support systems, and component performance. All TVT objectives were successfully addressed. Most evaluation criteria stipulated pre-flight were met. When there were deviations from pre-mission requirements, root causes were identified and subsystem configurations modified to eliminate these problems. Results from the TVT have been applied to the Plant Research Unit development to reduce technical risks and increase reliability. INTRODUCTION
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Biomass Production System (BPS) Ground Based Performance Testing

Orbital Technologies Corporation-R. C. Morrow, J. G. Frank, K. M. Stolp, M. C. Lee
Published 2002-07-15 by SAE International in United States
The longest BPS ground test to-date was the BPS Mission Verification Test done to provide a high fidelity end-to-end system test of BPS hardware and operations. This test took place at Kennedy Space Center from 4/9/01 to 6/21/01. The BPS temperature and humidity control, atmospheric control, lighting, and nutrient delivery systems performed within specifications. Ambient temperature conditions for the test ranged from 22°C to 28°C. Temperature systems performed well over the full range of ambient conditions and temperature setpoints were maintained throughout the test. Humidity setpoints were maintained within specification under nominal conditions; however, drift in humidity was observed during high ambient temperatures with large plant load conditions, and during CO2 drawdowns. CO2 levels in the wheat chambers were within ± 10% of setpoint under nominal conditions. Several automated CO2 drawdowns and CO2 cylinder changeouts were successfully completed. The ethylene scrubber maintained ethylene levels below 50 ppb. Plant growth was initiated in a total of eight root modules. BPS operations from preflight preparation through flight and postflight were demonstrated to be capable of supporting all…
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Extended Oil Drain Performance Capabilities of Diesel Engine Oils

Caterpillar, Inc.-D. S. Nycz, G. M. Karl, D. F. Gullett, R. G. Dussault, B. Butler, T. H. Becker
Mobil Oil Corporation-R. C. Morrow
Published 1998-10-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the results of a comprehensive field-testing program conducted in modern low-emission heavy-duty diesel engines to evaluate the extended oil drain capabilities of several diesel engine oils of varying performance levels. The data generated in the 59-truck trial, which was conducted over a two to three year period, provide support for extension of engine oil drain intervals when a premium mineral diesel oil is used rather than a fighting-grade mineral diesel product. The field trial results also document the performance of a premium fully synthetic engine oil at four times conventional oil drain intervals. Engine inspections conducted after 500,000 test miles confirm that the extension of oil drain intervals with premium diesel engine oils has no negative impact on engine durability. In addition to the extended oil drain interval performance, the fully-synthetic SAE 5W-40 oils evaluated were found to provide approximately a 3% reduction in fuel consumption relative to conventional SAE 15W-40 mineral oil based products in the applications tested.
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The ASTROCULTURE™-1 Flight Experiment: Pressure Control of the WCSAR Porous Tube Nutrient Delivery System

Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics-R. C. Morrow, W. R. Dinauer, R. J. Bula, T. W. Tibbitts
Published 1993-07-01 by SAE International in United States
The ASTROCULTURE™-1 (ASC-1) flight experiment, flown on STS-50 as part of the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission, June 25 to July 9, 1992, successfully demonstrated the ability of the WCSAR porous tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) to control water movement through a particulate rooting matrix in microgravity. One critical aspect of this demonstration was to maintain the fluid circulating through the porous tubes at a slight negative pressure. Control of the fluid loop pressure allows regulation of the amount of water maintained in the rooting matrix while preventing free water from escaping the root zone in microgravity.Pressure control in the ASC-1 flight unit was achieved by using a digital microcomputer and a proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative control algorithm to manipulate flow restrictors and pump speeds in response to changes in fluid pressure. The goal of the PTNDS control system used on ASC-1 was to maintain fluid pressure in the porous tubes within ± 0.5 cm H2O (± 49.1 Pa) of the pressure setpoint. Data collected during flight showed an actual control accuracy of approximately ± 0.8 cm H2O (±…
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A Matrix-Based Porous Tube Water and Nutrient Delivery System

University of Wisconsin-Madison-R. C. Morrow, R. J. Bula, T. W. Tibbitts, W. R. Dinauer
Published 1992-07-01 by SAE International in United States
A system was developed which provides nutrients and water to plants while maintaining good aeration at the roots and preventing water from escaping in reduced gravity. The nutrient solution is circulated through porous tubes under negative pressure and moves through the tube wall via capillary forces into the rooting matrix, establishing a non-saturated condition in the root zone. Tests using prototypes of the porous tube water and nutrient delivery system indicate that plant productivity in this system is equivalent to standard soil and solution culture growing procedures. The system has functioned successfully in short-term microgravity during parabolic flight tests and will be flown on the space shuttle.Plants are one of the components of a bioregenerative life support system required for long duration space missions. In addition to being a food supply, plants can remove atmospheric carbon dioxide, release oxygen, and transpire water from the leaf surfaces that can serve as a source of potable water. Providing a favorable root environment for plants in a space environment is essential in maintaining the growth rates necessary for…
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