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Morris, Andrew P.
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Utilizing Multiple Combustion Modes to Increase Efficiency and Achieve Full Load Dual-Fuel Operation in a Heavy-Duty Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Derek E. Nieman, Andrew P. Morris, Gary D. Neely, Andrew C. Matheaus, Jason T. Miwa
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) natural gas/diesel dual-fuel combustion has been shown to achieve high thermal efficiency with low NOX and PM emissions, but has traditionally been limited to low to medium loads. High BMEP operation typically requires high substitution rates (i.e., >90% NG), which can lead to high cylinder pressure, pressure rise rates, knock, and combustion loss. In previous studies, compression ratio was decreased to achieve higher load operation, but thermal efficiency was sacrificed. For this study, a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine that has been modified for dual-fuel operation (diesel direct-injection and natural gas (NG) fumigated into the intake stream) was used to explore RCCI and other dual-fuel combustion modes at high compression ratio, while maintaining stock lug curve capability (i.e., extending dual-fuel operation to high loads where conventional diesel combustion traditionally had to be used). It was determined that multiple combustion modes could be applied to extend the operating map and improve brake thermal efficiency of the heavy-duty dual-fuel engine. The research presented includes the development of a high load combustion strategy that improves…
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Methods of Improving Combustion Efficiency in a High-Efficiency, Lean Burn Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Derek E. Nieman, Andrew P. Morris, Jason T. Miwa, Bradley D. Denton
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Combustion losses are one of the largest areas on inefficiency in natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engines, especially when compared to the traditional diesel engines on which they are based. These losses can vary from 1-2% at high load, to more than 6% of the total fuel energy at part load conditions. For diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engines, the three main sources of combustion losses are: bulk losses (increasing air-fuel ratio, AFR, to the premixed fuel’s lean flammability limit), crevice losses (premixed fuel trapped near valve pockets and top ring lands unable to oxidize), and blow-through losses (fumigated fuel/air intake charge passes through the cylinder and out the exhaust valve during valve overlap). In order to improve overall engine efficiency and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, these losses must be minimized. In this paper, various mitigation techniques are explored experimentally on a 13 L, 2010-class on-highway diesel engine that has been modified for fumigated natural gas dual-fuel research. An additional study separated the effects of bulk and crevice losses on lean mixtures by adding H2 to the fumigated natural gas…
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Chest injuries in real-world, side-impact crashes~An overview

University of Birmingham-Andrew P. Morris, Ahamedali M. Hassan, Murray Mackay
  • Technical Paper
  • 1997-13-0010
Published 1997-09-24 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
This study examines 282 individual AIS 2 or greater injuries to the chest that occurred in a sample of UK side-impact crashes. The injuries were all sustained by front seat occupants seated on the struck side. Crash characteristics such as collision severity, object struck and injury contact source that were associated with the injuries are examined. Overall, the study reinforces the view that reduction of injury severity should rely on controlling the magnitude and distribution of the impact forces applied to the thorax when it collides with the vehicle side structure, chiefly the door.
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Neck Injuries in the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study

ICE Ergonomics-Andrew P. Morris, Pete Thomas
Published 1996-11-01 by SAE International in United States
This study examines some of the factors associated with soft tissue neck injuries in the UK. The data were drawn from a retrospective study of vehicle crash injuries in which the overall soft tissue neck injury rate was 16%. This study shows how although it is commonly assumed that such injuries are a rear impact phenomenon, over 50% of the injuries occur in frontal crashes. In front and rear impacts, these injuries are undoubtedly associated with seat-belt use. The incidence of neck injury has been shown to double over the ten-year period of the study with the effect more prominent in females. Such injuries are also more likely to be self-reported than clinically diagnosed. Head restraints have not been found to mitigate neck injuries in either front or rear impacts at a statistically significant level. A slight but non-significant trend towards reduced neck injury rates is observed in cases of seat back yielding in a rear impact.
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A Review of Driver Airbag Deployments in Europe and Japan to Date

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Koshiro One
Loughborough University of Technology-Andrew P. Morris, Pete Thomas
  • Technical Paper
  • 976003
Published 1996-05-13 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
This study examines data from 186 crash-damaged vehicles in Europe and Japan fitted with driver airbags. There were 130 cases of airbag deployment in the vehicles 97 of which were in single-impact frontal crashes. The majority of drivers in these impacts sustained AIS 1 injuries with the head/face being the most commonly injured body region. Some AIS 2+ injuries occurred when the optimum occupant protection circumstances were compromised in some way. The most common site of AIS 2+ injuries was the lower limb followed by the upper limb. Twelve out of 14 AIS 2+ injuries to the upper limbs occurred in vehicles whose airbag deployed. Slight differences were observed in injury outcomes when a differentiation was made between airbag sizes although this may have been a function of sample size. Overall encouraging results are apparent. However, this is a preliminary survey. Follow-up studies with more data are clearly the next stage if a comprehensive overview of the real-world performance of airbags is to be attained.

A Study of Soft Tissue Neck Injuries in the Uk

ICE Ergonomics-Andrew P. Morris, Pete Thomas
  • Technical Paper
  • 976134
Published 1996-05-13 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
This study examines in detail some of the factors associated with soft tissue neck injuries in the UK. The data were drawn from a retrospective study of vehicle crash injuries in which the overall soft tissue neck injury rate was 16%. This study shows how although it is commonly assumed that soft tissue neck injuries are a rear impact phenomenon, over 50% of the injuries actually occur in frontal crashes and over 25% in side impact crashes. In both front and rear impacts, these injuries are associated with seat belt use. The incidence of soft tissue neck injury has been shown to double over the ten-year period of the study with the effect more prominent in females. Females (21%) overall are more at risk sustaining soft tissue neck injury compared to males (13%). In all cases, such injuries are more likely to be self-reported than clinically diagnosed. Head restraints have not been found to mitigate neck injuries in either front or rear impacts at a statistically significant level. A slight but nonsignificant trend towards reduced…

The best location for a side airbag crush sensor

Autoliv AB-Yngve Haland
University of Birmingham-Ahamedali M. Hassan, Andrew P. Morris, Murray Mackay
  • Technical Paper
  • 1994-12-0054
Published 1994-09-22 by Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine in United States
An analysis of sample of lateral collisions has demonstrated that the optimum position for a side impact airbag sensor is in the lower rear quadrant of the front door. Positioned thus, some 88% of AIS 3+ injury cases would be covered, and some 91% of all AIS 4+ cases of front seat occupants would be covered. Analyses of injury sources and anatomical regions receiving injury, especially the head, demonstrate the great preponderance of the door as the prime source followed by exterior objects such as the striking car, trees and poles. Ideas for a predictive analysis of side airbag effectiveness are reviewed.