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Thermal Testing of a Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA-Alberto Franzoso, Marco Molina
ESA/ESTEC-Guido Barbagallo
Published 2009-07-12 by SAE International in United States
A Heat Switch has been developed, namely a device able to autonomously regulate its own thermal conductance in function of the equipment dissipation and environmental heat sink conditions. It is based on a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) technology, with a passive bypass valve which diverts the flow to the Compensation Chamber when needed for regulation purposes.The target application is the potential use on a Mars Rover thermal control system.The paper recalls the Heat Switch design, and reports the results of an extensive test campaign on the ground demonstrator. The performance of the device was found extremely satisfying, and often exceeded the system requirements.
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The AMS02 TVTB Test Design and Predictions

Carlo Gavazzi Space-Marco Molina, Christian Vettore, Ivan Corradino, Paolo Ruzza
INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - University of Perugia-Serena Borsini, Roberto Battiston, Bruna Bertucci
Published 2009-07-12 by SAE International in United States
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to measure charged cosmic rays spectra and high energy photons on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The large acceptance (0.5 m2sr), the long mission duration (3 years) and the state of the art particle identification techniques will allow AMS to provide the most sensitive search up to date for the existence of anti matter nuclei and for the origin of dark matter. AMS02 now is in its final integration phase at CERN. To verify the functional performance of the detectors and of the key subsystems of the Thermal Control System under vacuum condition and to validate the thermal mathematical model of AMS02 a system level thermo-vacuum test will be performed in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) of ESA at ESTEC (the Netherlands). A test sequence has been designed so that the test duration is minimized and all the key operations expected on orbit are tested in similar conditions: charging the magnet, simulating a power outage, booting the experiment from a power outage…
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AMS-02 Radiators Thermal Model Correlation Using in Air Test

Carlo Gavazzi Space S.p.A.-Marco Molina, Marcus Gröller
Università degli Studi di Perugia — Carlo Gavazzi Space S.p.A.-Paolo Ruzza
Published 2009-07-12 by SAE International in United States
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a particle physics detector designed to be installed on the International Space Station for at least 3 years, in order to measure charged cosmic rays, and to search for dark matter, missing matter and antimatter. The silicon Tracker is the centre of AMS. It measures particle trajectories through AMS-02 strong magnetic field with a micron accuracy.The heat dissipated by the whole experiment is rejected to deep space by means of four radiators [4–5]: the two Tracker radiators assure the heat dissipation for the above mentioned silicon Tracker, and the two Main radiators reject to space all the heat dissipated by the power, command and control units. The four radiators have been designed, analyzed by means of detailed thermal mathematical models and finally constructed and tested.This paper focuses on the thermal mathematical models tuning to best fit the provided test data. A brief presentation of behavior of the radiator (especially heat pipes) during the different phases of the test is also presented.
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A Heat Switch for European Mars Rover

Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA-Marco Molina, Alberto Franzoso, Alessandro Bursi
ESA/ESTEC-Guido Barbagallo
Published 2008-06-29 by SAE International in United States
The future Mars rover thermal design presents a unique challenge to the thermal engineers: the need arises for a thermal control system able to keep rover elements within their operational and non-operational temperature ranges in the face of extreme environmental conditions, characterized by broad day/night temperature excursions, cold biased conditions and long periods in standby modes induced by dust storms.A thermal device is needed, which allows the removal of excess heat from dissipating units during the Martian day and to keep them above their minimum operational/survival temperature during night. Moreover the scientific goals introduce strict requirements in terms of allowable internal components temperature ranges and thermal stability, which the candidate device has to fulfill against wide-ranging power dissipation modes.Such a device has been called Variable Thermal Conductance Device, or ‘Heat Switch’. The paper presents a heat switch demonstrator concept, which is based on a Loop Heat Pipe with a temperature-regulating valve.Heat Switch specifications are reviewed, and the main design characteristics to meet the requirements are explained. The demonstrator has been designed, built and tested for…
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One Year in Orbit: AGILE Satellite TCS Performance

Carlo Gavazzi Space-Marco Molina, Marco Trivini Bellini, Giovanni Annoni, Paolo Sabatini
Published 2008-06-29 by SAE International in United States
The ASI (Italian Space Agency) AGILE satellite has been launched on April, 23rd 2007 by a PSLV rocket from Shrikariota spaceport, in India.Its payload, called AGILE as well (for Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero) is an instrument for near-earth space research: its scientific instrumentation has optimal imaging capabilities in both the gamma-ray energy range (30 MeV - 30 GeV) and hard X-ray range (15 - 45 keV). It will study all the phenomena occurring in the high energy spectrum, such as: Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma Ray Bursts, Gamma-ray Galactic Diffuse Emission, and more.The first 10 months in orbit are reviewed, in light of the thermal control system performance compared with the numerical and experimental predictions.
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Test-Model Correlation in Spacecraft Thermal Control by Means of MonteCarlo Techniques

Politecnico di Milano-Marco Molina, Ercoli Finzi
Published 2007-07-09 by SAE International in United States
In the paper some methods are presented, with the corresponding practical examples, related to MonteCarlo (MC) techniques for thermal model/test correlation purposes.The MonteCarlo techniques applied to model correlation are intended to be used as an alternative to empirical ‘manual’ correlation techniques, gradients methods, matrix methods based on least square fit minimization.First of all, Design Of Experiments (DoE) tools are used to determine the model response to uncertain parameters and the confidence level of such a response. A sensitivity map is built, allowing the design of the test to maximize the response of the system to the uncertain parameters.Techniques derived from the extreme statistics are used to extrapolate data beyond test limits, with a sufficient confidence in the queue behaviour.Finally the tool of the random walk is used for the model correlation, and an original ‘random waltz’ is introduced, being the combination of Latin hypercube sampling and pure random walk.
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AGILE Satellite Thermal Balance and Thermal Vacuum Test

Carlo Gavazzi space SpA-Matteo Giacomazzo, Marco Molina, Christian Vettore, Giovanni Annoni, Paolo Sabatini
Contraves Italia-Michela Angelucci
Published 2007-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on the thermal testing of AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero) satellite flight model, conducted in June/July 2006 at IABG test facility.The paper describe the satellite mission, the logic for the selection of the test configuration, the test set-up and the test phases. The test results are presented and test-model (of the scientific instruments) correlation analysis between measured and calculated are discussed.
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Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) Thermal Control Verification Philosophy

Carlo Gavazzi Space-Marco Molina, Christian Vettore, Ivan Corradino
MIT-Joseph Burger
Published 2007-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on the approach followed for the TCS verification of the payload AMS-02 (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer), aiming at the qualification of the entire system, in steps, for the space environment. AMS-02 is a state-of-the-art experiment composed by a stack of seven different particle detectors, each of them having its own electronics and control equipments. It will be installed on the International Space Station Starboard segment S3 of the main Truss, and will be a 6500 kg payload, with a power consumption of 2000 W.The verification philosophy is driven by the need to qualify the flight hardware and by the necessary confirmation and correlation of the thermal mathematical models, based on experimental data. The hardware used on AMS-02 is derived from the state-of-the-art ground based detectors for high energy physics, hence not yet proven for operations in vacuum and in extreme thermal environment.The foreseen verification level criteria will be described in the paper, together with the tested items, that will be either Qualification Models or Flight Models.
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AGILE Satellite Thermal Control System Design: Thermal Model Uncertainty Reduction

Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA-Marco Molina, Matteo Giacomazzo, Paolo Sabatini, Christian Vettore, Giovanni Annoni
Contraves Italia-Michela Angelucci
Published 2007-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The satellite AGILE (Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero, “Light Gamma Ray Imaging Detector”) is a promising instrument for near-earth space research of the Italian Space(ASI) during the years 2007-2009: its scientific instrumentation has optimal imaging capabilities in both the gamma-ray energy range (30 MeV - 30 GeV) and hard X-ray range (15 - 45 keV). It will study the phenomena occurring in the high energy spectrum, such as: Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma Ray Bursts, Gamma-ray Galactic Diffuse Emission, and more. The satellite was designed and built in years 2004-2006; this paper describes the design of the thermal control system of the satellite, with a survey of the flight prediction. As an example of uncertainty reduction, MLI performance characterization by test was done in an early phase of the AIV phase (i.e. well before the system level test), to meet stringent payload requirements in terms of temperature gradients and temperature stability. AGILE will fly in an equatorial orbit: dimensioning cases are presented in the paper. The satellite TCS has been designed modularly, with a bus/payload approach.…
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Thermal Balance Test of the EuTEF Payload

Carlo Gavazzi Space SpA-Christian Vettore, Marco Molina
Published 2007-07-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the Thermal Balance test that has been performed on EuTEF (European Technology Exposure Facility) platform, to be flown in October 2007 as an attached payload of Columbus module to the ISS.The thermal control system of EuTEF is based on a passive concept, with several different payloads being each one a self-standing technological experiment, with a centralized power supply and data handling.Each instrument has its own TCS, independent one another: they are individually insulated by MLI. The test has been performed with EuTEF Flight Model (FM) on the Passive Attach System to have representative thermal flight-like interfaces.Simulation of close-to-real flight environmental heat loads have been accomplished in a vacuum chamber (at INTESPACE, Toulouse-F) by means of a solar beam and a spin table suitably oriented to simulate a critical identified orbit, among all the possible on the ISS.EuTEF has been tested both in the operative mode (power dissipated is nearly 350W) and stay alive heaters mode. The un-powered transfer from the Shuttle cargo bay to the ISS has been tested as well. The…
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