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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fueled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrogen has low ignition energy ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture of H2+air also. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant volume which enhances the thermal efficiency of hydrogen fuelled IC engine. High octane number of hydrogen makes it suitable for its application in Spark ignition (SI) engines. Since the hydrogen combustion in spark ignition engine generates water which can interfere with the lubricant performance, different lubricant is to be developed for this purpose. In this background, the present work is aimed at the development of dedicated lubricant for hydrogen fuelled SI engine. This paper presents the various parameters required for evaluating different lubricants for hydrogen fuelled genset. Existing CNG genset has been converted into hydrogen genset with modification in intake manifold assembly, engine hardware system, ECU modification with adequate modification in exhaust system. State of…
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Development of Engine Test Method to Discriminate Engine Oils and Additives in Terms of Motoring Torque

Indian Oil Corporation-Deepak Saxena
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.-A.S. Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, Sarita Seth, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, S.S.V. Ramakumar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Improvement in fuel economy and reduction in emissions are the two major driving forces in the advancement of automotive engine technologies, fuel quality, lubricants, and aftertreatment devices. Engine design, operating conditions such as speed and load, and engine oil behavior have a significant influence on engine friction and then the vehicle fuel economy. There is no standard short duration engine test available to evaluate engine oil’s friction. This study developed a test protocol to discriminate friction reduction efficacy of engine oils/additives to support in the development of engine oils. The engine test facility was modified to conduct the motoring test over the speed range of 1000 - 4500 rpm and at 50 - 100 °C coolant and oil temperatures. Different viscosity grades and additive chemistry i.e. combination of friction modifiers & viscosity modifiers was evaluated over the motored torque test. Repeatability of test results was also ensured by conducting the test many times under the same temperature/speed conditions. High viscosity index engine oils have shown better performance compared to low viscosity index oils at all…
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Durability Studies on Gas Engine Oil along with Performance and Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Turbocharged Natural Gas Powered Engine

Ashok Leyland Technical Center-G Senthilkumar, M Sathyanandan, P Mahesh
Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-Sauhard Singh, S K Mishra, V K Bathla, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, Deepak saxena, SSV Ramakumar
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas has been considered and implemented as alternative fuel to gasoline and diesel powered vehicles worldwide. Although natural gas belongs to petroleum fuel family, it has considerable recourses worldwide to ensure long energy security and comparatively lower carbon to hydrogen ratio that make it more environment friendly. This paper presents the effect of long duration endurance test on gas engine oil along with performance and emission characteristics of 5.8 L turbocharged heavy duty natural gas engine. The six cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for urban bus transportation. The engine was subjected to long duration endurance test of 800 hrs with closed loop monitoring and controlled conditions as per 6 mode engine load cycle. During the complete endurance test of 800 hours, performance and emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per Full Throttle Performance Test and European Transient Cycle (ETC). Also, engine oil sampling and analysis along with oil consumption were undertaken after completion of every 100 hrs. The durability studies were performed on state of the art transient…
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Impact of Ambient Temperature Conditions on Cold Start Combustion, Gaseous and Particle Emissions from Gasoline Engines

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.-A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and fuel injection strategies influence the cold start performance of gasoline engines. Despite the cold start period is only a very small portion in the legislative emission driving cycle, but it accounts for a major portion of the overall driving cycle emissions. The start ability tests were carried out in the weather controlled transient dynamometer - engine test cell at different ambient conditions for investigating the cold start behavior of a modern generation multi-point fuel injection system spark ignition engine. The combustion data were analyzed for the first 200 cycles and the engine performance and emissions were analyzed for 300 s from key-on. It is observed that cumulative fuel consumption of the engine during the first 60 s of engine cold starting at 10 °C was 60% higher than at 25 °C and resulted in 8% increase in the value of peak speed of the engine. The rate of pressure rise was significantly higher and prolonged for a number of cycles at 10°C compared to 25 °C and…
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Characterization of Ultrafine Particle Emissions from a Heavy Duty CNG Engine through Endurance Tests

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-Vishnu Vijayakumar, P. Sakthivel, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Amardeep Singh, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In the light of major research work carried out on the detrimental health impacts of ultrafine particles (<50 nm), Euro VI emission standards incorporate a limit on particle number, of which ultrafine particles is the dominant contributor. As Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a cheaper and cleaner fuel when compared to diesel, there has been a steady increase in the number of CNG vehicles on road especially in the heavy duty segment. Off late, there has been much focus on the nature of particle emissions emanating from CNG engines as these particles mainly fall under the ultrafine particle size range. The combustion of lubricant is considered to be the dominant source of particle emissions from CNG engines. Particle emission due to lubricant is affected by the oil transport mechanisms into the combustion chamber which in turn vary with engine operating conditions as well as with the physico chemical properties of the lubricant. The present study investigates the mechanism of nucleation, effect of oil viscosity and ageing on the particle size, number concentration & surface area.…
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Fuel Economy Benefits with Low Viscosity Engine Oil Formulations on Small Trucks with Chassis Dynamometer Tests

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Prashant Kumar, Reji Mathai, Sanjeev KUMAR, Ashish Kachhawa, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, Snigdhamayee Praharaj
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The growing transportation sector worldwide has opened up a way forward not only for the scientists & researchers but also for the OEMs to find out the options for fuel efficient automotive vehicles with reduced emissions during their usage. The demand of automotive vehicles has been doubled in last few years and in turn the market for lubricants and transmission fluids are flourishing. Several new formulations of lubricants are getting popularized with major suppliers to achieve the end user expectations in terms of fuel economy benefits, engine life and emissions. The market trend is continuously moving towards the improvement in lubricant formulation to the lower viscosity ranges and in this direction several companies are into development of multi-grade low viscosity range of engine oils (lubricants) which is said to be providing the benefits in terms of fuel economy. Also during past few years the low viscosity range of lubricants is getting popularized with OEMs for fuel economy improvement and other added benefits.For validation of the analytical results (laboratory based analysis) of low viscosity range of…
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Comparative Study of Unregulated Emissions on a Heavy Duty CNG Engine using CNG & Hydrogen Blended CNG as Fuels

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-Sauhard Singh, Sumit Mishra, Reji Mathai, A K Sehgal, R Suresh
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-8090
Published 2016-09-27 by SAE International in United States
One of the most promising solutions to address the twin problems of transport related pollution and energy security is to use alternative fuels. Compressed Natural gas (CNG) has been widely used in India to address the menace of pollution from commercial vehicles in cities like Delhi. Hydrogen blended compressed natural gas (HCNG) as a fuel has potential for further reducing harmful emissions and greenhouse gases. Enriching hydrogen in CNG improves combustion characteristic of CNG and reduces carbonyl emissions. Due to growing concerns over un-regulated emissions and their effect on human health, it is imperative to estimate un-regulated emissions from such alternatives for assessing overall impact of such fuels.Presently world over, emission legislations mainly addresses pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, CH4, NH3, PM etc. Relatively higher quantity in exhaust qualifies these pollutants to be monitored and controlled. But as the consumption of alternative fuels becomes comparable to that of the liquid fuels, other unregulated emissions like Methanol (CH3OH), Ethanol (C2H5OH), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), Formic Acid (HCOOH), Acetic Acid (CH3COOH), Propene (C3H8), Ethylene (C2H4), Ethyne (C2H2)…
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Investigation on Combustion, Performance and Emissions of Automotive Engine Fueled with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Punit Kumar Singh, A S Ramadhas, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0886
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
To tackle the problems associated with the volatility of crude oil prices and ever stringent emission norms, oil industries and automobiles manufacturers are experimenting with various alternative fuels to increase its percentage share in the energy mix and to reduce the vehicular emissions. Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuels for the gasoline engines as it does not require any major engine modification and new infrastructure for the fuel distribution network. Ethanol as sole fuel or blending component for gasoline for use in spark ignition engines has been investigated many decades. Currently, 10% ethanol is blended in motor gasoline in India and the ethanol concentration may be further increased in future. In order to study the effect of higher blends of ethanol (upto 20%) on engine in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission, investigations were carried out on a latest generation passenger car engine in a climatic controlled test cell. Engine combustion, performance and emissions were analyzed at full throttle condition at regular speed intervals. Higher octane number and oxygen in the ethanol blends improved the combustion…
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Effect of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Combustion and Emissions of a Passenger Car Engine at Part Load Operations

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-A S Ramadhas, Punit Kumar Singh, P Sakthivel, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal
Published 2016-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Alcohols are preferred choice of alternative fuel for gasoline engines to tackle the problems associated with nation’s energy security and environmental pollution. Ethanol can be used as a sole fuel or gasoline blending component for use in spark ignition engines. BIS Specification 2796: 2013 permitted to blend 10% ethanol in gasoline and the concentration may be further increased in coming years in India. Research on combustion of ethanol blended gasoline on modern gasoline engine is highly desirable. This paper highlights the experimental investigation carried out on the latest generation multipoint fuel injection system passenger car engine fueled with ethanol-gasoline blends in a climatic controlled test cell to study the in-cylinder combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Part load tests at regular speed intervals were conducted using ethanol blends. Combustion duration decreased with increase in engine load and speed for the all test fuels. Longer burn duration was observed with ethanol blends compared to neat gasoline at various load and speed conditions. Negligible changes peak pressure and cumulative heat release were observed among the fuel blends. Lower…
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Effect of Crankcase Oil on the Particle Size Distribution and Total Number Concentration in a Heavy Duty CNG Engine

Indian Oil Corporation, Ltd.-Vishnu Vijayakumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Reji Mathai, Shyam Singh, A K Sehgal
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, the characteristics of particle size distribution in the exhaust of a turbocharged 5.9 liter Cummins gas engine lubricated by two commonly used oils of different viscometrics (15W-40 and 20W-50) have been investigated. The study also attempts to differentiate the performance of the lubricants on the basis of fuel economy. A test procedure developed in- house was used for the evaluation, wherein the engine was operated at various speeds (1200-2800rpm) and load (25 %, 50% & 75%) conditions. Particle size distribution is measured using Engine Exhaust Particle Sizing Spectrometer (TSI EEPS Model 3090). Results indicate that a majority of the particle emissions are observed in the nucleation region (particle diameter < 50nm) and particle size distribution is found to significantly vary with engine speed. The geometric mean diameter of particles varied between 10-40 nm with maximum diameter observed at medium speed ranges. 15W-40 lubricant was found to have an advantage over 20W-50 with respect to fuel economy, but a clear differentiation in terms of particle emissions could not be established
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