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On Maximizing Argon Engines' Performance via Subzero Intake Temperatures in HCCI Mode at High Compression Ratios

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Ali Elkhazraji, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Sufyan Jan, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Robert Dibble, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1133
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Maximizing the indicated thermal efficiency with minimal amount of emissions is one of the main challenges to overcome in the field of internal combustion engines. The main obstacle that hinders achieving this goal is the typically low thermodynamic efficiency which is the ratio of the positive produced work on the piston to the amount of heat released inside the cylinder. Many concepts and technologies were innovated to maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. One of the main guidelines that have been followed to achieve so, is the ideal Otto’s cycle that predicts that increasing the compression ratio and/or the specific heat ratio of the combustion reactants, will maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. This study combines both high compression ratios and a high specific heat ratio via two of the main approaches used to maximize the thermodynamic efficiency. First, is the HCCI combustion mode. HCCI is typically operated at fuel-lean conditions, allowing to operate at higher compression ratios without having intense knock (pressure waves, generated by undesired autoignition, that can damage the engine). Second, air was replaced by an…
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A path towards high efficiency SI combustion in a CFR engine: Cooling the intake to sub-zero temperatures

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Sufyan M. Jan, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Ali Elkhazraji, Jean-Baptiste Masurier
University of California-Robert Dibble
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0550
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Textbook engine thermodynamics predicts that SI (Spark Ignition) engine efficiency η is a function of both the compression ratio CR of the engine and the specific heat ratio γ of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the SI engine is often limited due to “knock”. When this knock limit is reached, increase in heat transfer losses result in reduction in efficiency. One way to lower the end-gas temperature is to cool the intake gas before inducting it into the combustion chamber. With colder intake gases, higher CR can be deployed, resulting in higher efficiencies. In this regard, we investigated the indicated efficiency of the standard Waukesha CFR engine. The engine is operated in the SI engine mode. The engine was operated with three different mediums using the same fuel Methane (Gas). First is Air + Methane at room temperature, second was O2 + Argon + Methane gas mixture at room temperature, and lastly O2 + Argon +Methane at sub-zero conditions. We replace the Air by an Oxygen-Argon mixture to increase the specific…
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On the HCCI Octane Boosting Effects of γ-Valerolactone

King Abdullah Univ. of Science & Tech.-Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Binod Giri, Gani Issayev, Bengt Johansson, Aamir Farooq
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0026
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This study examined the octane boosting effects of γ-valerolactone, a fuel derived from lignocellulosic biomass, under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion mode. The experiments were performed in a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine under four sets of conditions defined by the combinations of intake temperatures and rotation speed. Octane boosting effects were rated with FACE (Fuel for Advanced Combustion Engine) J gasoline as a base fuel. Due to the non-miscibility of γ-valerolactone into FACE J, a new approach was proposed in which the octane boosting effect of a mixture comprised up of two-third γ-valerolactone and one-third ethanol was investigated. To evaluate the effect of γ-valerolactone, the octane boosting effect of pure ethanol into FACE J was also investigated such that comparison can be drawn. Further attempts were made to extract the octane boosting effects of pure γ-valerolactone. For convenience, both volumetric and molar approaches were considered to rationalize the experimental results. The results showed that γ-valerolactone is a good octane booster, and that it possesses higher octane enhancement potential than ethanol for a low…
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A Path towards High Efficiency Using Argon in an HCCI Engine

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Abdulrahman Magdy Mohammed, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Ali Elkhazraji, Robert Dibble, Bengt Johansson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Argon replacing Nitrogen has been examined as a novel engine cycle reaching higher efficiency. Experiments were carried out under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) conditions using a single cylinder variable compression ratio Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. Isooctane has been used as the fuel for this study. All the parameters were kept fixed but the compression ratio to make the combustion phasing constant. Typical engine outputs and emissions were compared to conventional cycles with both air and synthetic air. It has been found that the compression ratio of the engine must be significantly reduced while using Argon due to its higher specific heat ratio. The resulting in-cylinder pressure was lower but combustion remains aggressive. However, greater in-cylinder temperatures were reached. To an end, Argon allows gains in fuel efficiency, in unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, as well as in indicated efficiency.
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HCCI Octane Number Scale in a Pressure-Temperature Diagram

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Ali Elkhazraji, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Bengt Johansson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A new approach for investigating combustion behavior of practical fuels under homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) conditions was developed with the help of a cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine. The method uses a set of two pressure-temperature diagrams and two charts, each with an octane number scale based on primary reference fuels (PRF), created from experimental results by sweeping the intake temperature. The two pressure-temperature diagrams report conditions leading to the start of the low temperature combustion and the start of the main combustion, respectively. Additional two charts -- required compression ratio and fraction of low temperature heat release charts -- describe global combustion behavior and the importance of the low temperature combustion. Each diagram and chart, together with their respective octane number scale, allow to examine the combustion behavior of practical fuels by comparing their combustion behavior with those of the PRFs. Finally, octane numbers representing the various combustion behaviors of a practical fuel can be rated. Application of the method with two low-octane number surrogate fuels led to the following main results. The…
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Blending Octane Number of 1-Butanol and Iso-Octane with Low Octane Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

King Abdullah University of Science & Tech.-Muhammad Umer Waqas, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Bengt Johansson
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Due to their physical and chemical properties, alcohols such as ethanol and methanol when blended with gasoline provide high anti-knock quality and hence efficient engines. However, there are few promising properties of 1-butanol similar to conventional gasoline which make it a favorable choice for internal combustion engines. Previously the author showed that by blending ethanol and methanol with low octane fuels, non-linear increase in the HCCI fuel number occurs in HCCI combustion mode. Very few studies have been conducted on the use of 1-butanol in HCCI combustion mode, therefore for this work, 1-butanol with a RON 96 was selected as the high octane fuel. Three low octane fuels with octane number close to 70 were used as a base fuel. Two of the low octane fuels are Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE gasolines), more specifically FACE I and FACE J and also primary reference fuel (PRF 70) were selected. In addition, iso-octane, which has a different chemical structure than 1-butanol but an octane number (100) close to 1-butanol, was also selected as high octane…
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Combustion Behavior of n-Heptane, Isooctane, Toluene and Blends under HCCI Conditions in the Pressure-Temperature Diagram

King Abdullah University of Science & Tech.-Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Omar Altoaimi, Abdulrahman Mohammed, Muhammad Waqas, Bengt Johansson
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) experiments were run with the aid of a Cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, operating at 600 rpm and under very lean conditions (ϕ = 0.3). This study seeks to examine the combustion behavior of different fuels by finding the pressure-temperature (p-t) conditions that instigate the start of combustion, and the transition from low temperature combustion to principal combustion. The pressure-temperature diagram emphasizes p-t conditions according to their traces through the compression stroke. In each fuel tested, p-t traces were examined by a sweep of the intake temperature; and for each experimental point, combustion phasing was maintained at top dead center by adjusting the compression ratio of the engine. In addition to the p-t diagram, results were analyzed using a compression ratio-intake temperature diagram, which showed the compression ratio required with respect to intake temperature.Pure n-heptane, isooctane and toluene were investigated first. The results showed that these three fuels ignited in accordance with their octane number. The compression ratio-intake temperature diagram shows that the compression ratio decreased linearly with increased intake…
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Autoignition of Isooctane beyond RON and MON Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Muhammad Waqas, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1254
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The present study experimentally examines the low-temperature autoignition area of isooctane within the in-cylinder pressure-in-cylinder temperature map.Experiments were run with the help of a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. The boundaries of this engine were extended so that experiments could be performed outside the domain delimited by research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) traces. Since homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is governed by kinetics, the rotation speed for all the experiments was set at 600 rpm to allow time for low-temperature heat release (LTHR). All the other parameters (intake pressure, intake temperature, compression ratio, and equivalence ratio) were scanned, such as the occurrence of isooctane combustion.The principal results showed that LTHR for isooctane occurs effortlessly under high intake pressure (1.3 bar) and low intake temperature (25 °C). Increasing the intake temperature leads to the loss of the LTHR and therefore to a smaller domain on the pressure-temperature trace. In such a case, the LTHR domain is restricted from 20 to 50 bar in pressure and from 600 to 850 K in…
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Blending Octane Number of Toluene with Gasoline-like and PRF Fuels in HCCI Combustion Mode

King Abdullah University of Science & Technology-Muhammad Umer Waqas, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Mani Sarathy, Bengt Johansson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Future internal combustion engines demand higher efficiency but progression towards this is limited by the phenomenon called knock. A possible solution for reaching high efficiency is Octane-on-Demand (OoD), which allows to customize the antiknock quality of a fuel through blending of high-octane fuel with a low octane fuel. Previous studies on Octane-on-Demand highlighted efficiency benefits depending on the combination of low octane fuel with high octane booster. The author recently published works with ethanol and methanol as high-octane fuels. The results of this work showed that the composition and octane number of the low octane fuel is significant for the blending octane number of both ethanol and methanol. This work focuses on toluene as the high octane fuel (RON 120). Aromatics offers anti-knock quality and with high octane number than alcohols, this work will address if toluene can provide higher octane enhancement. Our aim is to investigate the impact of three gasoline-like fuels and two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). More specifically, fuels are FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) I, FACE J, FACE A, PRF…
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Blending Octane Number of Ethanol on a Volume and Molar Basis in SI and HCCI Combustion Modes

King Abdullah University of Science & Tech-Muhammad Umer Waqas, Jean-Baptiste Masurier, Bengt Johansson
Saudi Aramco-Kai Morganti
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
The blending behavior of ethanol in five different hydrocarbon base fuels with octane numbers of approximately 70 and 84 was examined under Spark-Ignited (SI) and Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) operating conditions. The Blending octane number (BON) was used to characterize the blending behavior on both a volume and molar basis. Previous studies have shown that the blending behavior of ethanol generally follows several well-established rules. In particular, non-linear blending effects are generally observed on a volume basis (i.e. BON > RON or MON of pure ethanol; 108 and 89, respectively), while linear blending effects are generally observed on a molar basis (i.e. BON = RON or MON of pure ethanol). This work firstly demonstrates that the non-linear volumetric blending effects traditionally observed under SI operating conditions are also observed under HCCI operating conditions. In keeping with previous studies, the degree of this non-linearity is shown to be a function of the base fuel composition and octane number. By contrast, the molar blending approach is shown to behave differently depending on the chosen combustion mode,…
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