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Lundell, Björn
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The Whips Seat-A Car Seat for Improved Protection Against Neck Injuries in Rear-End Impacts

Autoliv-Martin Lindström, Lennart Simonsson
Volvo Car Corp.-Björn Lundell, Lotta Jakobsson, Bo Alfredsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 986155
Published 1998-05-31 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Neck injuries resulting from rear-end impacts have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Although usually not life- threatening these injuries can have long-term consequences. The exact mechanism of injury has not yet been established. Several probable mechanisms occurring at different phases during the crash sequence have been suggested by researchers.Biomechanical guidelines and test methods are presented, being part of the results of Volvo''s Whiplash Protection Study (WHIPS). The biomechanical guidelines are based on an extensive review of accident experience and biomechanical research aimed at reducing the risk of neck injuries in rear-end impacts.A new seat concept, the WHIPS seat, developed using these guidelines and requirements, is explained in detail. The WHIPS seat comprises new recliners as well as a modified backrest and head restraint. The WHIPS recliner is designed to give a controlled rearward motion of the backrest in a rear-end impact; thereby, improving the closeness to the occupant''s head and back, absorbing energy and reducing the occupant''s forward rebound.Test results are summarized, and seen in relation to the suggested engineering guidelines, show a considerable…
 

Guidelines for and the Design of a Car Seat Concept for Improved Protection against Neck Injuries in Rear End Car Impacts

Volvo Car Corp.-Björn Lundell, Lotta Jakobsson, Bo Alfredsson, Clas Jernström
Volvo Data Corp.-Irene Isaksson-Hellman
Published 1998-02-23 by SAE International in United States
Neck injuries resulting from rear end car impacts have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Although usually not life-threatening these injuries can have long-term consequences. The exact mechanism of injury has not yet been established. Several probable mechanisms occurring at different phases during the crash sequence have been suggested by researchers.The accident experience with existing seat and head restraint designs is summarized. The results show that there are many factors influencing the risk of neck injury. A high and fixed-in-position head restraint, positioned close to the head, is beneficial. Also, Individual factors, such as gender and height, and seating position, are shown to have influence on the injury risk.Based on the range of biomechanical research in the area, as well as results from accident investigations and mathematical simulations, biomechanical guidelines and engineering requirements are proposed, with the aim of reducing the risk of neck injuries in a rear end impact. The guidelines and requirements focus on the performance of the whole seat.A new seat concept, WHIPS (Whiplash Protection Study), developed using these guidelines and requirements,…
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Passenger AIR-BAG Status Indication Awareness Study

SAAB Automobile AB-Martin Ericson
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute-Lena Nilsson, Maria Berlin
Published 1997-02-24 by SAE International in United States
With the growing concern about the potential dangers with rear facing child seats placed in the front seat of passenger airbag equipped cars, various systems are being considered for deactivation of the airbag.To increase the awareness of and confidence in these proposed systems, information displays were developed for the purpose of telling the status of the passenger airbag system and to warn when necessary. A study of the effectiveness, understanding and acceptance of a selection of such information displays was jointly undertaken by Volvo Car Corporation, SAAB Automobile AB and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.Respondents of various age and demographic composition, parents and grand parents of small children, were exposed to six different sets of information displays and were asked to interpret them and also rank which information displays that would most clearly convey the message. Conclusions were drawn concerning information content, symbols and colours.The study did also investigate the respondents preference regarding automatic or manual disconnection airbag system.
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Optimizing Seat Belt Usage By Interlock Systems

AUTOLIV Development AB-Torbjörn Andersson
Chalmers University of Technology-Per Lövsund
  • Technical Paper
  • 976007
Published 1996-05-13 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Seat belts are known to be very effective, reducing the risk of injury by approximately 50% when used. Such high effectiveness is, however, based on the fact that all car occupants use the available belts. In several studies it has been shown that, in severe accidents, the seat belt use was less than 50%.In order to increase the wearing rate more drastic solutions than information, legislation, etc., have to be used. A Swedish group, representing government, research, insurance companies, car and restraint systems industry has approached the problem by proposing a smart system that will force car occupants, that normally are unbelted, to use the seat belts by systems that will interfere with the normal use of the car. Different technical approaches, which not in nay way will interfere with the normal belt user, will be put forward and evaluated. The problem will also be discussed from a cost-effectiveness point of view and the potential of saving lives in an international perspective will be analyzed. It is shown that more than 6,000 lives could be…
 

SIPSBAG - The Seat-Mounted Side Impact Airbag System

Volvo Car Corp.-Björn Lundell, Mikael Edvardsson, Lennart Johansson, Johnny Korner, Stig Pilhall
Published 1995-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Injuries in side impact collisions constitute one fourth of the serious or fatal injuries sustained by occupants in ordinary passenger cars. The Volvo Side Impact Protection System (SIPS) provides a substantially enhanced protection for car occupants in side collisions.The protection level of the SIPS system has been further increased by the addition of the Sipsbag, a quick-deploying side impact airbag system integrated in the seat backrest.The design of the non-electrical Sipsbag system is explained, as well as the advantages with a completely seat-integrated system.The process to industrialise the side airbag concept is summarised.Laboratory test results are discussed. Using methodology to correlate laboratory test data with accident data, an estimate of the injury-reducing effectiveness of the SIPS and Sipsbag system is made.
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Rear Seat Safety of Estate Cars-New Concepts

Volvo Car Corp.-Björn Lundell, Hans Norin, Michael Persson, Stig Pilhall
  • Technical Paper
  • 946177
Published 1994-05-23 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
The safety of the rear seat of estate cars (station wagons) is discussed. Recent improvements to the rear seat safety systems of these cars will be explained. The customer-oriented design process, using QFD technique, of the new rear seats for estate cars, is described.The new designs include three-point belts and head restraints on all seating positions, integrated child booster cushion, convenient seat folding mechanisms and integrated luggage restraints.The accident experience of the rear seats in passenger cars is summarized, with special attention to estate cars.The result is a new concept of estate car rear seats with a high level of safety, comfort and convenience.
 

ISOFlX - A New Concept of Installing Child Restraints in Cars

FOLKSAM Research-Claes Tingvall
Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
Published 1993-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Even though child restraint systems (CRS) are very effective there are still serious problems because of non-use or misuse. This is often due to the fact that the installation of the CRS in the cars is difficult, complicated and unstable. A standardised interface between the CRS and the car seat would solve these problems. Within the IS0 Committee ISO/TC22/SC12NVGl this item has been raised and several proposals for an “ISOFIX have been discussed. Apart from the installation aspects, other features e.g. disconnection of passenger airbags can be included in the system. Several concepts called ISOFlX type 1 to 7 with different working names e.g. DELTAFIX, EASY-FIX, MONOFIX and UNlFlX have been evaluated. The handling performance of some of the prototypes have been tested by customer evaluation with very positive results. Crash performance has also been investigated.The paper will give an update on the latest progress of this development, including a preliminary specification.
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Experience from Four Years of Activity in the ISO Working Group on Child Restraint Systems

Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution-Peter Claesson
Swedish Road and Traffic Research Institute-Thomas Turbell
Published 1993-11-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper will summarise the experience of four years activities in the International Standardization Organisation (ISO) working group on child restraint systems in road vehicles. The background for the formation of the working group will be explained. The initial discussion of possible working areas and their priority will be reviewed. It was found that the principal, most urgent areas for investigation of possible future safety standards were compatibility and misuse. Within these areas, the results will be explained in detail, and what possible future Standards or Technical Reports can be foreseen as a result of the work of this ISO working group.
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Improving Rear Seat Safety-A Continuing Process

Volvo Car Corp.-Björn Lundell, Gerd Carlsson, Petter Nilsson, Michael Persson, Camilla Rygaard
  • Technical Paper
  • 916158
Published 1991-11-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
This paper will give an overview of the safety of the rear seat of passenger cars. Accident experience for the rear seat, involving unbelted occupants and occupants wearing three-point belts and two-point lap-belts, will be summarized. Different means of improving the safety of the rear seat for both children and adults, in particular the center position, will be discussed. The three-point retractor belt is an important safety item, which in some car models has been available for the rear outer seating positions for several years. This has not been the case for the rear center seating position. Two different types of three-point retractor belts for the center position in sedan models will be presented. A child cushion integrated in the folding armrest in the center position will be described. This child restraint has recently been introduced for sedan models and is used together with a standard fitted three-point belt.