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Braking with a Trailer and Mountain Pass Descent

General Motors LLC-David B. Antanaitis, Brent Lowe
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A truly strange - but very interesting - juxtaposition of thought occurs when considering customer’s deceleration needs for towing heavy trailers in mountainous regions, and the seemingly very different area of sizing brakes for Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and other regenerative braking-intensive vehicle applications, versus brakes for heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles rated to tow heavy trailers. The common threads between these two very different categories of vehicles include (a) heavy dependence on the powertrain and other non-brake sources of energy loss to control the speed of the vehicle on the grade and ensure adequate capacity of the brake system, (b) a need to consider descent conditions where towing a heavy trailer is feasible (in the case of heavy trailer towing) or initiating a descent with a full state of charge is realistic (in the case of BEVs), which forces consideration of different descents versus the typical (for brake engineers) mountain peak descent. In this paper, a vehicle operator-based requirement is derived that integrates engine (or motor), transmission (or gearbox), driveline, brake system, brake cooling,…
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Friction Damped Disc Brake Rotor

General Motors Corp.-Omar Dessouki, Brent Lowe, Mark Riefe
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Over the last five years, the automotive industry has experienced a trend towards niche performance vehicles equipped with high-output powertrains. These high performance vehicles also demand higher output braking systems. One method used to provide enhanced pedal feel and fade performance is to equip vehicles with higher apparent friction linings. The challenge then becomes how to design and manufacture these brake systems without high-frequency disc brake squeal and without paying a significant mass penalty. One alternative is to design disc brake rotors with increased damping. There are several options for increasing rotor damping. The classical approach is to increase the rotor's cast iron carbon content, thus increasing the internal material damping of the rotor. However, this methodology provides only a small increase in rotor damping. Alternatively, the rotor damping can be increased by introducing friction, sometimes referred to as Coulomb damping. This paper describes two different rotor designs that utilize friction damping. Prototypes of these rotors were manufactured and tested to validate their effectiveness in controlling brake squeal.
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Disc Brake Squeal: Diagnosis and Prevention

General Motors Corporation-Omar Dessouki, George Drake, Brent Lowe, Wen Kuei Chang
Published 2003-05-05 by SAE International in United States
In the last thirty years the automotive industry has seen the transition from drum brakes to disc brakes. This transition was made with the intent of improving performance and reducing mass. Concurrent with this transition has been an all out effort to improve both quality and perceived quality of automobiles. A key component of quality/perceived quality of disc brake systems is disc brake squeal.In the past five years a tremendous amount has been learned about disc brake squeal, through analytical techniques, dynamometer testing, and on vehicle testing. This work has culminated in the identification of at least three families of brake squeal, each having its own set of countermeasures. This paper attempts to capture most of the recent findings, including the identification of the three families of disc brake squeal, a system to diagnose them, and a discussion of the appropriate countermeasures. A discussion on how to go about designing a ‘squeal free’ system is also included.
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