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Numerical Assessment of Controlling the Interval between Two Heat-Release Peaks for Noise Reduction in Split-injection PCCI Combustion

Keio University-Mina Nishi, Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida
Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.-Takayuki Fuyuto
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
In PCCI combustion with multiple injections, the mechanism having two heat release peaks which has a favorable characteristic of reducing noise is studied using numerical tool of single- and also multi-zone model of CHEMKIN PRO. In the present investigation, the physical issues, such as variations in the equivalent ratio and temperature caused by the fuel injection are simplified first so that the key issues of chemical reaction occurred in the combustion chamber can be extracted and are discussed in detail. The results show that the interval of two heat-release peaks can be controlled and as the number of zones of the calculation increases, the change in the timing of a heat release peak is increased but over three-zones, it is not affected any more. This indicates that to study about complex diesel combustion phenomena, three-to four-zone model shall give sufficiently accurate results.
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An Investigation of Controlling Two-Peak Heat Release Rate for Combustion Noise Reduction in Split-Injection PCCI Engine using Numerical Calculation

Keio Univ-Hiroki Ikeda, Norimasa Iida
Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc-Takayuki Fuyuto
Published 2014-11-11 by SAE International in United States
A combustion method called Noise Canceling Spike (NC-Spike) Combustion [1, 2] has been reported in the co-author's previous paper, which reduces combustion noise in PCCI with split injection. This NC-Spike Combustion uses interference of the following “spike” of pressure rise on the preceding peak of pressure rise. The overall combustion noise is reduced by lowering the maximum frequency component of the noise spectrum. The period of this frequency is two times of the time interval between the two peaks of the pressure rise rate. This maximum load range of conventional PCCI combustion is limited by the combustion noise, since the maximum pressure rise rate increases as the amount of injected fuel increases. The NC-Spike Combustion has a potential to extend of the operating range of PCCI combustion. In this paper, we investigated feasibility and controllability of the two-peak heat release rate during high temperature heat release by adding fuel in the adiabatic compression process of pre-mixed gas. Numerical calculation using a multi-zone model was performed in consideration of the fuel inhomogeneity. In this paper, 2…
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Noise and Emissions Reduction by Second Injection in Diesel PCCI Combustion with Split Injection

SAE International Journal of Engines

Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.-Takayuki Fuyuto, Masahiro Taki, Reiko Ueda, Yoshiaki Hattori
Toyota Industries Corp.-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Tsutomu Umehara
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2676
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
An author's previous studies addressed a combustion system which reduces emissions, noise, and fuel consumption by using PCCI with the split injection of fuel. This concept relies on the premixed combustion of the first injected fuel and accelerated oxidation by the second injected fuel. Although this combustion system requires the optimization of the timing of the second injection, the details of how noise and emissions are reduced have not been elucidated.In this paper, the authors explain the mechanism whereby emissions and noise are reduced by the second injection.In-cylinder visualizations and numerical simulations both showed an increase in smoke and CO as the second injection timing was advanced, as induced by the inhibited oxidation of the rich flame. When the second injection timing is excessively retarded, the amount of soot forming around the near-nozzle increased. The second fuel injection at the optimum timing can mix with the air in the inner-region of the cavity, such that no soot is formed in the near-nozzle region.Combustion noise spectra analysis revealed that noise canceling occurs between two peaks in…
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High Efficiency and Clean Diesel Combustion Concept using Double Premixed Combustion: D-SPIA

Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Masahiro Machida, Tsutomu Kawae, Takeshi Tanaka, Hideki Aoki, Yoshio Sugiyama, Tsutomu Umehara
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
A new concept, Diesel Staggered Premixed Ignition with Accelerated oxidation (D-SPIA) was developed for lower exhaust emissions and carbon dioxide (CO₂) and this is based on divided fuel injection before top dead center (TDC). D-SPIA is a result of investigating various diesel combustion methods. Although the D-SPIA is a type of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), it has a distinct feature of double premixed combustion by optimum injection quantities and staggered timing, which can achieve an ideal heat release rate for low pollutant emissions and fuel consumption.Based on this concept, second injection timing and the proportion of the second fuel injection quantity play significant roles to reduce smoke, and hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. The second injection timing has a close relation to the premixed time of the second fuel injection and smoke level. The in-cylinder temperature at the second injection timing, which is related to the premixed time of the second fuel injection, is affected by the low-temperature heat release (LTHR) or the high-temperature heat release (HTHR) of the first fuel injection.…
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High Efficiency and Clean Diesel Combustion Concept Using Double Premixed Combustion (Second Report)~Influence of Environmental Variation and Fuel Cetane Quality on New Concept Combustion

Tsutomu Kawae, Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Takeshi Tanaka, Hideki Aoki, Yoshio Sugiyama, Tsutomu Umehara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0656
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
We investigated combustion robustness of new concept combustion, named D-SPIA, regarding intake air temperature, engine coolant temperature and fuel cetane quality. Through this testing we found out that heat release rate of D-SPIA could be maintained at desired phase by control of air-fuel ratio and/or injection timing against change of the environmental conditions. Besides, the combustion of D-SPIA was stable for using of lower cetane fuel.Finally, we tested a prototype engine installed D-SPIA combustion concept on transient engine test bench and could verify it had a potential to meet Euro6 regulation without any DeNOx after-treatment, showing no fuel penalty.
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High Efficiency and Clean Diesel Combustion Using Double Premixed Ignition (First Report)~Development of a New Combustion Concept and Potential of Emission Reduction

Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Masahiro Machida, Tsutomu Kawae, Tsutomu Umehara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0655
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
It is very important and urgent subject that internal combustion engines have better combustion potential on clean and high efficiency performance for energy-saving future. We developed a new concept combustion for lower exhaust emission included CO₂, named Diesel Staggered Premixed Ignition with Accelerated Oxidation (D-SPIA), that is based on divided fuel injections before TDC. Although our D-SPIA belongs to a kind of PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition), it has a distinct feature of double premixed combustion by optimum injection quantities and staggered timing, which can achieve an ideal heat release rate for low pollutant emission and fuel consumption stably.
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Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Spray with Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nippon Soken, Inc.-Masaaki Kono
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Kazuhisa Inagaki, Jyunichi Mizuta, Takayuki Fuyuto
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1393
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A new clean diesel combustion concept has been proposed and its excellent performance with respect to gas emissions and fuel economy were demonstrated using a single cylinder diesel engine. It features the following three items: (1) low-penetrating and highly dispersed spray using a specially designed injector with very small and numerous orifices, (2) a lower compression ratio, and (3) drastically restricted in-cylinder flow by means of very low swirl ports and a lip-less shallow dish type piston cavity.Item (1) creates a more homogeneous air-fuel mixture with early fuel injection timings, while preventing wall wetting, i.e., impingement of the spray onto the wall. In other words, this spray is suitable for premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) operation, and can decrease both nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot considerably when the utilization range of PCCI is maximized.However, in diffusive combustion, especially at full load, a low-penetrating spray potentially causes higher soot emissions and results in lower maximum torque. In this case, item (2) is applied to recover full-load performance. The lower compression ratio enables diffusive combustion phasing to…
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Low Emissions and High-Efficiency Diesel Combustion Using Highly Dispersed Sprays With Restricted In-Cylinder Swirl and Squish Flows (Second Report)~Application to Multi-Cylinder Engine for Validation of Engine Performances

Nippon Soken, Inc.-Masaaki Kono
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Kazuhisa Inagaki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0406
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The new diesel combustion concept in the first report was examined in more practical conditions using a multi-cylinder engine. A micro multi-hole injector was designed to create more diluted fuel-air mixture for NOx reduction, and near-zero swirl ports and lip-less cavity were to restrict in-cylinder flows. Such diluted mixture increases more unburned hydrocarbon, and results in worse fuel economy, generally. The restricted flows, however, improve it owing to reducing heat loss. As a result of complementary effects, our engine showed NOx were reduced to a half of Euro6 standards in the equivalent New European Driving Cycle, without deteriorating fuel economy.
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A Study on Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine - Expanding the Operating Range and Combustion Mode Switching

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Kazuhiro Akihama, Kazuhisa Inagaki, Matsuei Ueda
Toyota Industries Corporation-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Masahiro Machida
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines require high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas. In the first study, the natural gas fueled HCCI combustion with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was achieved without an intake air heater. The effects of the combustion chamber configuration, turbocharging, and external EGR were investigated for expanding the operating range. As a result, it was cleared that the combination of internal / external EGR and turbocharging is effective for expanding the HCCI operational range toward high loads. Meanwhile, the HCCI combustion characteristics at high engine speeds were unstable because of an insufficient reaction time for auto-ignition. Although the engine operation with a richer air-fuel ratio was effective for improving the combustion stability, the combustion noise (CN) was at an unacceptable level. Retarding of the ignition timing is effective for reducing the CN, however, misfires become a major problem. In the second study, from the results of CFD simulation, it was cleared that a local hot temperature spot promoted the…
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Expanding the Operational Range of a Natural Gas-Fueled HCCI Engine by Controlling Internal/External EGR, and Charging Pressure

Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Kazuhiro Akihama
Toyota Industries Corp.-Hiroshi Kuzuyama, Masahiro Machida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-05-0255
Published 2006-10-22 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A natural gas-fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is attractive combustion technology that could provide high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. In general, the natural gas HCCI engine needs high compression ratios and intake air heating because of the high auto-ignition temperature of natural gas.In the first stage of this study, the basic characteristics of natural gas-fueled HCCI were investigated under various intake air temperatures by using an intake air heater. Although HCCI itself with the intake air heater showed high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions, the actual efficiency of the engine system was lower than that of spark ignition combustion due to power consumption of the intake air heater. Internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) by a negative overlap cam profile was investigated as an alternative way of the intake air heater. As a result, HCCI combustion was achieved without the intake air heater and showed higher indicated thermal efficiency compared to a spark ignition combustion engine.Expanding the operating range of HCCI was attempted in the next step. The effects of combustion chamber…