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Numerical Evaluation of Gasoline Compression Ignition at Cold Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Aramco Research Center-Yuanjiang Pei, Yu Zhang, Praveen Kumar, Tom Tzanetakis, Michael Traver
Argonne National Laboratory-Le Zhao, Muhsin Ameen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0778
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Achieving robust ignitability for compression ignition of diesel engines at cold conditions is traditionally challenging due to insufficient fuel vaporization, heavy wall impingement, and thick wall films. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has shown good potential to offer enhanced NOx-soot tradeoff with diesel-like fuel efficiency, but it is unknown how the volatility and reactivity of the fuel will affect ignition under very cold conditions. Therefore, it is important to investigate the impact of fuel physical and chemical properties on ignition under pressures and temperatures relevant to practical engine operating conditions during cold weather. In this paper, 0-D and 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of GCI combustion at cold conditions were performed. First, 0-D simulations were performed to evaluate the ignitability of different gasoline-like fuels and the impact of initial pressure and temperature on the autoignition behavior over a range of equivalence ratios and anti-knock indices (AKI). Gasolines with research octane numbers (RON) varied from 60 to 92 were investigated. The simulation results were then used to generate thermodynamic maps for ignitability for the different gasolines.…
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Evaluation of Fast Warm-Up Strategies for a Light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition(GCI) Engine

Aramco Research Center-Praveen Kumar, Mark Sellnau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0317
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations in automotive applications are driving advancements in after-treatment technology and emissions control strategies. Fast warm-up of the after-treatment system during the engine cold-start is essential to meet future emissions targets. In this study, a range of strategies were evaluated on a 2.2L, four cylinder, light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine with geometric compression ratio 17. The GCI engine has a single stage turbocharger and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with EGR cooler bypass. . For cold-start assist, the engine is equipped with a 2.5kW electric heater. The aftertreatment system is comprised of an oxidation catalyst, followed by a particulate filter and an SCR catalyst. A detailed GT-Power model of the GCI engine system was developed for evaluations. In the first work phase, the individual and combined benefit of the engine-based strategies, such as flare speed, load, retarded CA50, intake air heater and backpressure valve throttling were evaluated for ambient cold-start. The cumulative benefit of the strategies produced estimated exhaust temperature and exhaust enthalpy of 470 degree C and 10 kW, respectively…
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An Investigation into the Effects of Variable Valve Actuation in a Heavy-Duty Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

Aramco Research Center-Michael Traver
Aramco Services Co.-Praveen Kumar, Yu Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1130
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The application of variable valve actuation (VVA) has been well demonstrated for improvements in fuel economy and reduced emissions in spark-ignited (SI) and diesel engine applications. The current research numerically investigates effects of VVA in a prototype heavy-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine modified from a MY2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine. For the GCI engine system, the geometric compression ratio was modified to 15.7, and the RON92 gasoline was assumed as a fuel . In a sister paper, a 3-D CFD analysis was conducted to characterize effects of reduced effective compression ratios on the fuel efficiency improvements and reduced soot & NOx emissions for RON92 GCI combustion at mid-to-high engine load conditions. As a follow-up, the current research conducted a 1-D system level analysis to evaluate the effects of VVA on the boost system requirements for the RON92 GCI combustion. Reduction of effective compression ratio by means of early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC) is a well-known methodology. However, the LIVC and EIVC strategies severely affect the volumetric efficiency…
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Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, India-Gananath Doulat Thakre
Indian Institute of Petroleum CSIR, India-Robindro Lairenlakpam
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0002
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1. The EV performance tests were carried out on the chassis dynamometer that followed the driving cycles. The maximum speed test showed a top speed of 64 km/h for the EV.…
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System Performance Comparison of Direct Torque Control Strategies Based on Flux Linkage and DC-Link Voltage for EV Drivetrains

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India-Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, C. Upendra Reddy, Amit Kumar Singh, Praveen Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0007
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous works have been carried out with perspectives to improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV) drivetrains; much of the attention has been on the design of highly efficient electric motors, power converters, and energy storage system. Besides the abovementioned factors, selection of the drivetrain configuration and control strategy also influence the efficiency and performance of EV drivetrain. The drivetrain efficiency and performance indices, such as torque ripple and total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current, are sensitive to the direct current (dc)-link voltage and flux linkage values for a drivetrain control strategy. Therefore, in this work, the efficiency and the performance of two popular direct torque controlled induction motor (IM) drives are compared on the basis of adjustable dc-link voltage and flux linkage values for desired operating condition. Both these techniques are implemented on a lab scale test bed. Extensive experiments are performed to determine and compare the drivetrain efficiency maps. Further, dynamic and steady-state (SS) control performance in terms of speed, torque, and flux linkage is examined. Other performance indices, such…
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Design for Adaptive Rear Floor Carpet for Changing Shapes and Complex Architecture

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Ramakrishna Nimmagadda, Harshad Bornare, Nareen Kinthala
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
With increasing road traffic and pollution, it becomes responsibility for all OEM to increase fuel efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Most effective way to do so is to reduce weight of the vehicle and more use of ecofriendly recyclable material. With this objective we have come up with Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution for Injection moulded RQT (Rear quarter trim). It is an interior plastic component mounted in the III row of the vehicle. This is required to ensure inside enhanced aesthetic look of the vehicle and comfort for 3rd row passengers. Conventionally RQT of vehicle with 3rd row seating is made using plastic material (PP TD 20). With the use of plastic moulded RQT there is a significant weight addition of around 6 kg per vehicle along with reduced cabin space, huge investment and development time impact.In PROJECT X model which is a 4.4 meter vehicle with 3rd row seating capacity, we have challenged the conventional way of design and have come up with “Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution” of…
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Design of Light Weight Footstep Using Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Vivek KV Shenoy, Ashish Kumar Sahu, Srivatsa Sriperumbudur, Anton Kumanan, K V Balaji
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Utility or Off-road vehicles are characterized with their higher ground clearances. Higher ground clearance of vehicle requires the vehicle to have footsteps for easy entry and exit of passengers from the vehicle. A typical foot step construction consists of structural steel brackets with an Aluminum or plastic top panel. Conventional steel construction is heavier to meet weight bearing capacity and durability requirements. Our objective of this work is to explore lightweight materials which can meet these performance requirements with a lighter construction. We chose to study the continuous glass fiber reinforced plastic as an alternative to the metal construction.
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Design of Energy Absorbing Plastic Brackets to Meet Rear Crash Regulation ECE R42

Automotive & Industrial Sales-Pushparaj Arumugam
Automotive CAE-Devendra Sankla
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle safety and adherence to rules and regulation is of utmost requirement for any OEM. ECE R42 is one of the most important test criteria for a vehicle to get launched. To prove this, we shall discuss the case of Low speed impact structure construction. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate the novel design of Polymer energy absorption structure to meet the rear bumper low speed impact test and ensure proper absorption of impact energy and avoid any damage to rear lamp of the vehicle. This paper shows a perfect example of sustainability with the help of complete modular construction of the frame structure. The proposed design uses a cost-effective way of assembling the physical part by comparing with benchmarking and within the Mahindra part library. The low speed impact structure is mounted directly to BIW panels without any extra foams. These frame structure are simple in design and rigid in construction by comparing with other OEM products and within all Mahindra vehicles.The low speed impact structural member is integrated but modular at…
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Design of Lightweight Composites for Vehicle Front End Energy Management of Bumper Beam

Indian Institute of Technology-Balasubramanian Muthiah, Velmurugan Ramachandran
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Sarma Sr Akella, Ayan Chakraborty, Shankar M Venugopal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Application of advance composites in place of the various conventional materials such as steel can give significant weight and performance advantages. The application of composites is now finding it’s way in the automotive industry due to the growing requirement of the lightweight solutions and high strength to weight ratio. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their application in automotive structural components. The study presented here is focused on the explicit dynamic analysis of a bumper beam and advance composites are used for the study. Different configurations and designs of the bumper are considered to be able to make a comparative study of the stress and deformation levels. The analysis was done in coherence to the Euro NCAP tests and the offset frontal impact analysis was done. The boundary conditions were aligned with the real time impact conditions for proper prediction of the results. Based on stress, deformation, specific strength and weight, the replacing materials for existing steel bumper are considered and the corresponding energy absorption are calculated. Laminated composites such as Glass, Carbon and…
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Design of Light Weight Spoiler for Efficient Aerodynamic Performance of a Vehicle

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Aditya Pandey, Vivek KV Shenoy, BalaChandar R, Ayan Chakraborty
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The spoiler is functional as well as aesthetic part fitted on the vehicles to improve the vehicle aerodynamic performance and better aesthetic appeal. The improvement of aerodynamics performance of the vehicle at higher speeds is achieved by reducing the overall vehicle coefficient of drag. This helps in better handling and improved fuel efficiency of the vehicle thus contributing to development of greener vehicle.In this project, our main focus is to reduce overall vehicle coefficient of drag, Design a light weight spoiler and improve the vehicle aesthetic appearance.
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