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Thermal Analysis of Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit: Application of Chemical Looping Combustion

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

National Institute of Technology-Prashant Kumar, MD AKRAM, Anand Shankar Singh, Sanjay S
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-1390
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
An “APU” (Auxiliary Power Unit) is a small gas turbine engine to provide supplementary power to an aircraft and is located at the tails of larger jets. APU generators provide auxiliary electrical power for running aircraft systems on the ground. Applications include powering environmental systems for pre-cooling or preheating the cabin, and providing power for crew functions such as preflight, cabin cleanup, and galley (kitchen) operation and long-haul airliners must be started using pneumatic power of APU compressor. The Honeywell 131-9A gas turbine APU has 440 kW shaft power and 90 kW electric generator consuming 120 kg fuel/hour. Here the traditional combustor of the APU is proposed to be replaced by a chemical-looping-combustion (CLC) system. CLC system consist of two reactor one is oxidation reactor (air reactor) and the other is reduction reactor (fuel reactor).The system is fluidized bed system in which activated metal-oxide(MeO) participates and circulates between the reactors .The metal-oxide (MeO) provides oxygen for combustion in the fuel reactor. The reduced metal is then transferred to air reactor before being reintroduced to the…
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Review of Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery Mechanism for Internal Combustion Engine Using Thermoelectric Principle

GVP College of Engineering-Souvik Singh Rathore, Anand Singh, Prashant Kumar, Nazish Alam, Mithilesh Kumar Sahu
The National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur-Sanjay R
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Automotive power packs have been the focus of research over a long period of time. Among various power packs when we consider internal combustion engines, there is an ample opportunity in developing systems that can make optimal utilization of all the energy streams related to the automotive engine. In this regard utilization of internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat and environmental pollution have been the focus of research in the recent past. About 35% of the automotive input fuel energy is converted to useful crankshaft work and about 30% energy is expelled with exhaust. This leaves about one-third (35%) of the total energy that must be transmitted from the enclosed cylinder through the cylinder walls and head to the surrounding. The exhausted energy from engine results in entropy elevation and solemn environmental pollution. So it is desired to utilize waste heat to the extent possible. The recuperation and utilization of waste heat not only conserves fuel but also additionally reduce the amount of waste heat and greenhouse gases dumped into environment. The objective of this…
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Passenger under Foot Structure and its Efficacy:-Analytical & Experimental Evaluation

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Prashant Kumar, Sameer Srivastava, Arnab Sandilya, Kapil Kumar Pandey, Pavan Pabba
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Increasing customer expectations of comfort and convenience inside the vehicle has resulted in OEMs working on various solutions to improve interior ergonomics and overall layout. One of the key areas of focus has been the ease of ingress into and egress from the vehicle. But with increased sharing of platforms in OEM Model Lineup, due to obvious benefits like cost and common tooling/parts, it is very difficult to achieve improved results in different vehicles (like Hatchback, Notchback, SUV etc.) but with same underpinnings.One of the commonly used approaches is provision of false flooring via floor pads for front / Rear Passengers for easy Egress-Ingress. Floor Pads are used to maintain similar comfort levels across different vehicles sharing common platform and to maintain similar relationship between Foot resting positions and Side Sill.Various materials like Synthetic felts, Polyurethane (PU) foam blocks, Rubber blocks, expanded polypropylene etc. are used to this end as solid structures placed below carpet. Other than that Synthetic resin structures are also used for the mentioned purpose. Of the various requirements for any solution…
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New Generation Fuel Efficient Engine Oils with Superior Viscometrics

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.-Sarita Seth, Swamy Maloth, Prashant Kumar, Bhuvenesh Tyagi, Lokesh Kumar, Rajendra Mahapatra, Sarita Garg, Deepak Saxena, R Suresh, SSV Ramakumar
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Automobile OEMs are looking for improving fuel economy[1,2] of their vehicles by reducing weight, rolling resistance and improving engine and transmission efficiency apart from the aerodynamic design. Fuel economy may be improved by using appropriate low viscosity [3] and use of friction reducers (FRs)[4,5] in the engine oils. The concept of high viscosity index [6] is being used for achieving right viscosity at required operating temperatures.In this paper performance properties of High Viscosity Index engine oils have been compared with conventional VI engine oils. Efforts have been made to check the key differentiation in oil properties w.r.t. low temperature fluidity, high temperature high shear viscosity/deposits, friction behavior, oxidation performance in bench tribological /engine/chassis dyno tests which finally lead to oil performance assessment. Three candidates of SAE 0W-30 grade oil with ACEA C2/API SN credentials have been chosen using various viscosity modifiers. Impact of viscosity modifiers on cranking, pumping, high temperature high shear viscosity and Kurt Orbahn after shear viscosity have been studied. Bench tests such as SRV/MTM, Four Ball WSD, PDSC, JIS K2514 and TEOST…
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Fuel Economy Benefits with Low Viscosity Engine Oil Formulations on Small Trucks with Chassis Dynamometer Tests

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Prashant Kumar, Reji Mathai, Sanjeev KUMAR, Ashish Kachhawa, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, Snigdhamayee Praharaj
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The growing transportation sector worldwide has opened up a way forward not only for the scientists & researchers but also for the OEMs to find out the options for fuel efficient automotive vehicles with reduced emissions during their usage. The demand of automotive vehicles has been doubled in last few years and in turn the market for lubricants and transmission fluids are flourishing. Several new formulations of lubricants are getting popularized with major suppliers to achieve the end user expectations in terms of fuel economy benefits, engine life and emissions. The market trend is continuously moving towards the improvement in lubricant formulation to the lower viscosity ranges and in this direction several companies are into development of multi-grade low viscosity range of engine oils (lubricants) which is said to be providing the benefits in terms of fuel economy. Also during past few years the low viscosity range of lubricants is getting popularized with OEMs for fuel economy improvement and other added benefits.For validation of the analytical results (laboratory based analysis) of low viscosity range of…
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Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Ambient Air - A Case Study at the Vicinity of Fuel Filling Stations in New Delhi, India

Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Neeraj Kumar, Prashant Kumar, M. Sithananthan, Reji Mathai, Ajay Kumar Sehgal, R. Suresh, B. P. Das
Published 2015-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in ambient air are potentially toxic among the air pollutants. They are present in the urban atmosphere due to both exhaust emissions from vehicles and evaporative emissions at fuel filling stations. The present study aims to provide an indication of ambient levels of benzene, a carcinogenic VOC in the immediate vicinity of petrol filling stations in Delhi & National Capital Region (NCR). The monitoring of benzene is conducted across the vicinity of petrol stations to ascertain the effect of outside pollutant concentration on forecourt area. Continuous monitoring of benzene was achieved by an air quality monitoring facility stationed across the selected locations at four selected fuel filling stations. It was observed that the average concentrations of benzene measured during the study ranged between 2.28 ppb - 9.43 ppb. The study also reveals few peaks in the benzene level during heavy traffic count and these values were higher than the limiting value of 1.56 ppb as prescribed by NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standard) of India. The temporal variation in the…
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Development of Delhi Driving Cycle: A Tool for Realistic Assessment of Exhaust Emissions from Passenger Cars in Delhi

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre-Sachin Chugh, Prashant Kumar, M Muralidharan, Mukesh Kumar B, M Sithananthan, Anurag Gupta, Biswajit Basu, Ravinder Kumar Malhotra
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Human health is the driving force for setting the Ambient Air Quality Standards for the country. As per Auto Fuel Policy released by Govt. of India, Air Quality Monitoring and Source Apportionment Studies were initiated in six cities. Apart from determining emission data from other sources, the assessment of automotive emission inventory was done by conducting the emission testing on vehicles of different categories and vintages following a driving cycle. India has been following Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) adopted from European driving cycle which may not give a realistic assessment of vehicular emissions in laboratory as compared to on-road emissions. The variation could be due to different traffic density, land-use patterns, road infrastructure and traffic management encountered in India as compared to Europe.This paper presents the evolution of Driving Cycle developed for passenger cars in Delhi. The entire exercise was divided into 5 major components including selection of representative routes, vehicles, measuring instruments, data analysis methodology and validation of final driving cycle. Seven routes were selected considering Home-to-Work trips covering major landmarks and traffic…
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