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Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

Chantal Parenteau
General Motors-Barbara Bunn, Suzanne Johannson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the use of crash cases and CT scan data.The sternum morphomics data showed the thoracic depth increased, except for the 60-74-year-old age group.…
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A Study of Age-Related Thoracic Injury in Frontal Crashes using Analytic Morphomics

University of Michigan-Susumu Ejima, Sven Holcombe, Peng Zhang, Brian Derstine, Joel MacWilliams, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart Wang
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this study was to use detailed medical information to evaluate thoracic injuries in elderly patients in real world frontal crashes. In this study, we used analytic morphomics to predict the effect of torso geometry on rib fracture, a major source of injury for the elderly. Analytic morphomics extracts body features from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients in a semi-automated fashion. Thoracic injuries were examined in front row occupants involved in frontal crashes from the International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database. Among these occupants, two age groups (age < 60 yr. [Nonelderly] and age ≥ 60 yr. [Elderly]) who suffered severe thoracic injury were analyzed. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate injury outcomes using variables for vehicle, demographics, and morphomics. Compared to the nonelderly group, the elderly group sustained more rib fractures. Logistic regression models were fitted with different configurations of variables predictive of the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale of the thoracic region (MAISthx 3+). The performance of models was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). AUC is a widely-used “rating” method to…
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The Effect of Age on Fat and Bone Properties along the Vertebral Spine

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Michigan-Chantal Parenteau, Sven Holcombe, Peng Zhang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1244
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The human body changes as it becomes older. The automotive safety community has been interested in understanding the effect of aging on restraint performance. Recent research has been focused on assessing the structural and material changes associated with age. In this study, structural tissue distribution was determined using the computed tomography (CT) scan data of more than 19,000 patients, aged 16 and up. The data consisted of subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, visceral fat cross-sectional area, and trabecular bone density taken at each vertebral level. The data was quantified as a function of five age groups with the youngest group defined as 16-29 years old and the oldest group as 75 and up. An additional analysis stratified on gender was carried out.Overall, visceral fat increased with age. Compared to the 16-29 group, the visceral fat measured at the L1 level was 1.97 in the 30-44 group, 2.55 in the 45-59 group, 3.33 in the 60-74 group and 3.21 times greater in the 75+ group. Subcutaneous fat also increased with age up to the 60-74-year-old group. The…
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Detailed Measurement of Vehicle Occupants

University of Michigan-Stewart C. Wang, Sven C. Holcombe, Nicholas C. Wang, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0065
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Occupants of vehicles involved in motor vehicle collisions vary substantially in body stature and condition. This variability contributes substantially to differences in injury severity and patterns in the real world. Demographic factors such as age, gender, height and weight are insufficient to describe human variability. We analyzed CT scans of trauma and control populations to measure the anthropometry and tissue quality of different body regions. We observe very significant variability which we have referenced to a large population of 50%ile males. These findings are useful to identify occupant specific factors that contribute to motor vehicle crash injury.

Morphomic Analysis of Cervical Facet Angles

University of Michigan-Nicholas C. Wang, Sven Holcombe, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Stewart C. Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0058
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Different vertebral facet angles in pediatric versus adult necks may explain their disparate biomechanical tolerance and motion under physical loading. We analyzed CT scans of the neck using novel semi-automated image processing software algorithms to characterize the morphology of each cervical vertebra, including precise measurement of facet angle relative to other vertebral landmarks. We observe clear and very significant changes in facet angle with aging for C2 through C7. These findings are useful, when analyzed in conjunction with vehicle crash and injury data, to identify occupant specific factors that may contribute to motor vehicle crash injury tolerance in live subjects.

Patterns of Acetabular Femoral Head Coverage

University of Michigan-Sven Holcombe, Carla Kohoyda-Inglis, Lu Wang, James A. Goulet, Stewart C. Wang
University of Virginia-Richard W. Kent
Published 2011-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
The size and shape of the acetabulum and of the femoral head influence the injury tolerance of the hip joint. The aim of this study is to quantify changes in acetabular cup geometry that occur with age, gender, height, and weight. Anonymized computed tomography (CT) scans of 1,150 individuals 16+ years of age, both with and without hip trauma, were used to describe the acetabular rim with 100 equally spaced points. Bilateral measurements were taken on uninjured patients, while only the uninjured side was valuated in those with hip trauma. Multinomial logistic regression found that after controlling for age, height, weight, and gender, each 1 degree decrease in acetabular anteversion angle (AAA) corresponded to an 8 percent increase in fracture likelihood (p≺0.001). Age, weight, and gender were found to influence anteversion angle significantly, with each 10 years in age increasing AAA by 1.07 degrees, each 10 kg of weight decreasing AAA by 0.45 degrees, and being female resulting in 1.42 degrees greater AAA than males. Height was not found to relate significantly to AAA after…
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Safety Belt and Occupant Factors Influencing Thoracic & Upper Abdominal Injuries in Frontal Crashes

Crash Safety Consulting-Daniel Faust
General Motors Company-Huizhen Lu, Margaret Andreen, Lisa Furton, Brian Putala
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports on a study that examines the effect of shoulder belt load limiters and pretensioners as well as crash and occupant factors that influence upper torso harm in real-world frontal crashes. Cases from the University of Michigan International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) database were analyzed. Additional information was used from other databases including the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS), and patient data available from the University of Michigan Trauma Center. The ICAM database is comprised of information from real-world crashes in which occupants were seriously injured and required treatment at a Level 1 Trauma Center. Cases from the database were included in this study if they met the following criteria: (a) the primary collision involved a frontal type crash and; (b) case occupants were seated in front outboard positions, restrained by 3-point safety belts and deployed frontal airbags.One hundred thirty-three (133) case occupants who sustained nearly 1,800 injuries were…
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