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Kennedy, S.
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API CJ-4: Diesel Oil Category for Pre-2007 Engines and New Low Emission Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Diesel Particulate Filters

ASTM Heavy-Duty Engine Oil Classifi cation Panel-J. A. Mc Geehan, J. Moritz, G. Shank, S. Kennedy, D. Stehouwer, M. Urbank, M. Belay, S. Goodier, A. Cassim, B. Runkle, H. DeBaun, S. Harold, K. Chao, S. Herzog, R. Stockwell, C. Passut, P. Fetterman, D. Taber, L. Williams, W. M. Kleiser, J. Zalar, P. Scinto, E. Santos, J. A. Rutherford
Published 2007-07-23 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the U.S. EPA's 2007 on-highway emission standards for particulate and NOx, all diesel engines will require diesel particulate fi lters (DPFs) and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and will utilize ultra-low sulfur fuel. As this will be the fi rst time that all on-highway diesel engines will employ DPFs combined with ultra-low-sulfur fuel, the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) requested that a new oil category be developed to provide compatibility with DPFs in the exhaust system, as well as engine durability for both new and pre-2007 engines.This paper reviews the development of this new oil category called API CJ-4, which was introduced in October 2006. This diesel engine oil category is the fi rst in the U.S. which limits the oil's sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur in order to insure adequate service life of the DPF.The API CJ-4 oil category includes 9 fired engine tests and 6 bench tests. The new multi-cylinder tests in the category include Caterpillar C13, Cummins ISB, Cummins ISM, Mack T-12, and Mack T-11, which cover oil consumption,…
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API CJ-4: Diesel Oil Category for Both Legacy Engines and Low Emission Engines Using Diesel Particulate Filters

Afton-C. Passut
Ashland-B. Runkle
Published 2006-10-16 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet the U.S. EPA's 2007 on-highway emission standards for particulate and NOx, all diesel engines will require diesel particulate fi lters (DPFs) and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and will utilize ultra-low sulfur fuel. As this will be the first time that all on-highway diesel engines will employ DPFs combined with ultra-low-sulfur fuel, the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) requested that a new oil category be developed to provide compatibility with DPFs in the exhaust system, as well as engine durability for both new and legacy engines.This paper reviews the development of this new oil category called API CJ-4, which will be introduced in October 2006. This diesel engine oil category is the first in the U.S. which limits the oil's sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur in order to insure adequate service life of the DPF.The API CJ-4 oil category includes 9 fi red engine tests and 6 bench tests. The new multi-cylinder tests in the category include Caterpillar C13, Cummins ISB, Cummins ISM, Mack T-12, and Mack T-11, which cover oil consumption,…
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API CI-4: The First Oil Category for Diesel Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation

Caterpillar Inc.-D. Tharp
Chevron Oronite Company LLC-W. Kleiser
Published 2002-05-06 by SAE International in United States
This oil category was driven by two new cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) engine tests operating with 15% EGR, with used oil soot levels at the end of the test ranging from 6 to 9%. These tests are the Mack T-10 and Cummins M11 EGR, which address ring, cylinder liner, bearing, and valve train wear; filter plugging, and sludge. In addition to these two new EGR tests, there is a Caterpillar single-cylinder test without EGR which measures piston deposits and oil consumption control using an articulated piston. This test is called the Caterpillar 1R and is included in the existing Global DHD-1 specification.In total, the API CI-4 category includes eight fired-engine tests and seven bench tests covering all the engine oil parameters. The new bench tests include a seal compatibility test for fresh oils and a low temperature pumpability test for used oils containing 5% soot.This paper provides a review of the all the tests, matrix results, and limits for this new oil category. This work was completed by the ASTM Heavy Duty Engine Oil…
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Performance of an Advanced Synthetic Diesel Engine Oil

ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co.-K. J. Kelly, S. Kennedy, J. E. Spagnoli
Published 2000-06-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the performance of a synthetic diesel engine oil formulated to satisfy the most demanding lubrication requirements of modern heavy-duty diesel engines designed to meet North American and European emission regulations. The combination of an advanced fully synthetic base stock system and a customized additive system has resulted in an SAE 5W-40 oil with unique performance characteristics which include exceptional low and high temperature properties, excellent engine performance in laboratory and field tests, and an independently-documented, measurable fuel economy benefit relative to conventional mineral-based multigrade diesel engine oils. In addition to the cold starting and low volatility benefits derived from the synthetic base stocks, this technology has demonstrated outstanding engine performance in the areas of soot dispersancy, wear protection, engine cleanliness, and oil consumption control. This synthetic diesel engine oil exceeds the requirements of the API CH-4 and ACEA E4/E5 categories, as well as a number of more demanding North American and European engine builder specifications. Engine performance in the laboratory tests required to satisfy these specifications is presented, as well as extended…
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New Diesel Engine Oil Category for 1998: API CH-4

Caterpillar Inc.-M. J. Quinn
Chevron Chemical-R. Lee
Published 1998-05-04 by SAE International in United States
This paper reviews ASTM's work in developing the new API CH-4 diesel engine oil category for 1998. It focuses in particular on three new engine tests - Cummins M-11, Mack T-9, and Caterpillar 1P - which are juxtaposed on existing engine and bench tests in the API CG-4/CF-4 categories. These new tests ensure increased engine durability, while operating at high temperatures and high levels of soot in the crankcase. The high soot levelsMP expected in 1998 emission-controlled engines are a result of retarded fuel injection timing used to lower NOx, combined with high top-ring piston locations used to minimize particulate.API CH-4 is the most robust API diesel engine oil category ever developed. It improves the quality of diesel engine oils for both existing and new engines, using both low and normal fuel sulfur levels. In addition, it will allow a more flexible approach to oil drain intervals, in accordance with the recommendations of the individual engine manufacturers.
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A Synthetic Diesel Engine Oil with Extended Laboratory Test and Field Service Performance

Mobil Research & Development Corp.-S. Kennedy, M. A. Ragomo, J. R. Lohuis, W. H. Richman
Published 1995-10-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the engine test and extended oil drain field performance of new synthetic engine oil technology developed for use in North American low-emission heavy-duty diesel engines. The resulting formulation utilizes an advanced additive system specifically tailored for synthetic base stocks which exceeds current industry and engine builder targets in critical performance tests. Use of synthetic base stocks allows the formulation of engine oils with a unique combination of performance characteristics, which include meeting SAE 5W-40 viscosity requirements for cold starting benefits while maintaining low volatility loss at high temperature for oil consumption control. In addition to meeting API CG-4, CF-4, CF-2, CF, SH and EC requirements, this technology has also demonstrated exceptional performance in extended-length diesel and gasoline engine tests. Furthermore, it has also performed very well in extended service interval field tests. At drain intervals up to four times those normally recommended, excellent engine wear, deposit protection, and oil consumption control have been consistently demonstrated. Additionally, fuel economy benefits in excess of 4% relative to SAE 15W-40 conventional mineral oils have been…
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Additive Effects on Lubricant Fuel Economy

Research Department, Amoco Petroleum Additives Co., Naperville, Illinois-S. Kennedy, L.D. Moore
Published 1987-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Bench and engine tests were used to determine the effects of typical lubricating oil components on the fuel economy performance of energy conserving oils. The bench studies identified negative fuel economy effects of zinc dialkyldithiophosphates and positive effects of overbased sulfonates. The Sequence VI dynamometer test quantified viscometric influences on fuel economy; results indicated that SAE 5W-30 oils are not always more fuel efficient than 10W-30 analogs, and that viscosity index improver type has a large impact on fuel economy. These effects were integrated with additive effects on other formulation criteria to design an overall system.
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