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A Comparative Analysis of Combustion Process, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in Diesel Engine Fueled with Blends of Jatropha Oil-Diesel Fuel and Jatropha Oil-Kerosene

Eduardo Mondlane University-Albert Macamo
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Takaaki Yamaji, Katsuyoshi Asaka, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Satoshi Kato, Yasumitsu Suzuki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2015-32-0797
Published 2015-11-17 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A comparative study was performed by use of blends of Jatropha oil-diesel fuel and Jatropha oil-kerosene in order to investigate the feasibility of direct utilization of Jatropha oil in a DI diesel engine. Experimental results at low load demonstrated that mixing 60 vol.% of Jatropha oil into both diesel fuel and kerosene gave less impact on indicated thermal efficiency, whereas further increase of Jatropha oil deteriorated it. Jatropha oil-kerosene decreased particulate matter compared to Jatropha oil-diesel fuel, although particulate matter increased with the increase of Jatropha oil fraction. At partial load where double injection was applied, mixing 80 vol.% of Jatropha oil gave no significant impact on indicated thermal efficiency, exhaust gas emissions and particulate matter and no significant difference was observed between diesel fuel blends and kerosene blends. Combustion visualization was also performed in an optically accessible engine in order to gain insight into the ignition and combustion processes at low load.
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Premixed Fuel Effect on Ignition and Combustion of Dual Fuel Compression Ignition Engine

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Ryo Muto, Satoshi Kato
Published 2015-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Effects of chemical reaction characteristics of premixed fuel were experimentally studied in a dual fuel compression ignition engine using port injection (PI) of gasoline-like component and direct injection (DI) of diesel fuel. Octane number of port injection fuels, direct injection timing and injection amount ratio between PI and DI were swept to assess the interaction between chemical reaction and mixture distribution in a combustion chamber. Chemical kinetic study using multi-zone modeling was also performed in order to explain experimental results under quiescent condition.
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Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Jatropha Crude Oil Blends

Eduardo Mondlane Univ.-Alberto Macamo
Kanazawa Institute of Tech.-Satoshi Kato, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yasumitsu Suzuki, Koji Tosa, Katsuyoshi Asaka
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Jatropha biofuel is promising renewal oil to produce biodiesel fuel through transesterification method which is shown in many papers. The ideal diesel alternative fuel obtained considering Jatropha as materials is Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME). It is more desirable than the viewpoint of economical efficiency and CO2 control to operate a diesel engine with Jatropha crude (JC) oil. It is the purpose of this research to examine a possibility of using advantageous JC oil direct use as diesel engine fuel, in consideration of the sustainable production of the Jatropha biofuel in Mozambique. The adaptability to the diesel engine of diesel oil and the mixed fuel of JC was examined. Jatropha crude oil contains phorbol ester (PEs) which is a promoter of cancer. Measurement of the concentration of PEs in an exhaust gas was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Skip cycle operation was performed for diesel engine with an electronically-controlled fuel injection system, and it was checked that the PEs concentration in the exhaust gas in low load operation which imitated cold starting condition.…
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Experimental Validation of a Droplet Vaporization Model for Ethanol-Blended Fuels and its Application to Spray Simulation

Kanazawa Institute of Tech.-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yusuke Kimoto, Satoshi Kato
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol is a promising alternative to fossil fuels because it can be made from biomass resources that are renewable. In the most cases, however, ethanol is blended with conventional fuels because of the limited amount of production. Ethanol-fuel blends are typically azeotropic and have a unique characteristic in vapor pressure and phase equilibrium, which is different from that of blends composed of simple aliphatic hydrocarbons.The current studies by the authors have developed a numerical vaporization model for ethanol-gasoline blends, which takes into account vapor-liquid equilibrium of azeotrope and high latent heat of vaporization of ethanol, in order to update the authors' multicomponent fuel spray model and to investigate effects of blending ethanol on droplet vaporization processes.In this paper, the developed vaporization model was validated through a comparison with experimentally-observed vaporization rate for single droplets of ethanol-n-heptane blends. The predicted results were in a good agreement with experimental data. The results also showed that the latent heat of vaporization of ethanol plays an important role in a droplet vaporization rate while the increase of the vapor…
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Numerical Simulation of Evaporating Sprays of Ethanol Fuel Blends

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Yusuke Kimoto, Satoshi Kato
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol is a promising alternative to fossil fuels because it can be produced from biomass resources that are renewable. Due to the amount of production, however, the usage would be limited to blends with other conventional fuels.Ethanol-fuel blends are azeotropic and have unique vaporization characteristics different from blends composed of aliphatic hydrocarbons, so that the present study developed a numerical scheme which takes into account the vapor-liquid equilibrium of azeotrope in order to update the author's original version of the multi-component fuel CFD model and to evaluate the effect of mixing ethanol into gasoline on the evaporation process.The numerical simulation was implemented for evaporating sprays of ethanol-n-heptane blends, which are injected through a single hole nozzle. In addition to the vapor-liquid equilibrium, the effect of the latent heat of vaporization was investigated. The result clearly shows the effect of azeotropic phenomenon on the evaporation process while indicating that the latent heat of vaporization plays more significant role on the evaporation for the case of higher mixing fraction of ethanol.
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Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions in a Compression Ignition Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Doshisha University-Jiro Senda
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Hiroki Maekawa , Satoshi Kato
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-32-0031
Published 2012-10-23 by SAE International in United States
Ignition, combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel spray were examined for ranges of injection timing and intake-air oxygen concentration. Fuels used were binary mixtures of gasoline-like component i-octane (cetane number 12, boiling point 372 K) and diesel fuel-like component n-tridecane (cetane number 88, boiling point 510 K). Mass fraction of i-octane was also changed as the experimental variable. The experimental study was carried out in a single cylinder compression ignition engine equipped with a common-rail injection system and an exhaust gas recirculation system. The results demonstrated that the increase of the i-octane mass fraction with optimizations of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration reduced pressure rise rate and soot and NOx emissions without deterioration of indicated thermal efficiency. Numerical investigation into the pressure rise rate reduction mechanism was also performed by use of a multi-component fuel model developed by the authors. The calculated result showed that the pressure rise rate was reduced due to the difference in the vapor concentrations between two components which have difference reactivity.
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Simultaneous Reduction of Pressure Rise Rate and Emissions of a CI Engine by Use of Dual-Component Fuel Spray

Doshisha Univ.-Jiro Senda
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Hiroki Maekawa, Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Satoshi Kato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2012-08-0339
Published 2012-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Combustion and emissions characteristics of dual-component fuel were evaluated for ranges of injection timing and intake oxygen concentration. Fuels used were mixtures of a gasoline-like component, i-octane, and diesel fuel-like component, n-tridecane, so that the effects of the difference in chemistry and volatility were investigated. The experimental study performed in a CI engine and the numerical analysis using multi-component fuel model demonstrated that the dual-component fuel reduced pressure rise rate due to the difference in the vapor formation rate between two components which have the different reactivity. Furthermore, the experimental results showed that the dual-component fuel achieves low NOx and soot combustion without suffering from penalty of thermal efficiency.
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Numerical Analysis of Spray Characteristic Effects on Ignition and Combustion for Dual-Component Fuel

Doshisha Univ.-Jiro Senda
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Kenta Fujimori, Hiroki Maekawa, Satoshi Kato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0363
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A modeling study has been performed for several kinds of dual-component fuel spray. A source code of SUPERTRAPP developed by NIST has been incorporated into KIVA3V to predict physical fuel properties and vapor-liquid equilibrium. A multistep kinetics Shell ignition model and a global single-step mechanism have been employed to account for low temperature and high temperature oxidation reactions, respectively. The calculated results were in good agreement with experimental ones obtained in a constant volume vessel for wide variety of fuel compositions. Using this model, additional investigation was performed to examine a feasibility of combustion control strategy by means of batch-distillation vaporization process of dual-component fuel.
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Modeling of Auto-Ignition and Combustion Processes for Dual-Component Fuel Spray

SAE International Journal of Engines

Doshisha University-Jiro Senda
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Kenta Fujimori , Hiroki Maekawa , Satoshi Kato
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0001
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
Auto-ignition and combustion processes of dual-component fuel spray were numerically studied. A source code of SUPERTRAPP (developed by NIST), which is capable of predicting thermodynamic and transportation properties of pure fluids and fluid mixtures containing up to 20 components, was incorporated into KIVA3V to provide physical fuel properties and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations. Low temperature oxidation reaction, which is of importance in ignition process of hydrocarbon fuels, as well as negative temperature coefficient behavior was taken into account using the multistep kinetics ignition prediction based on Shell model, while a global single-step mechanism was employed to account for high temperature oxidation reaction.Computational results with the present multi-component fuel model were validated by comparing with experimental data of spray combustion obtained in a constant volume vessel. The results showed a good agreement in terms of spray tip penetration, liquid length, ignition delay and so on, for several kinds of dual-component fuels. Additional investigation into a combustion control methodology using dual-component fuel, which aims to mitigate combustion rate of premixed charge, was performed. Consequently, the feasibility of this…
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Effects of Mixedness and Ignition Timings on PCCI Combustion with a Dual Fuel Operation

Doshisha Univ.-Masato Kishiura, Jiro Senda
Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Yoshimitsu Kobashi, Daijiro Tanaka, Teppei Maruko, Satoshi Kato
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
A dual fuel operation with different reactivity fuels has the possibility of optimizing performance and emissions in premixed charge compression ignition engines by controlling the spatial concentration and distribution of both fuels.In the present study, n-heptane and i-octane were independently injected through two different injectors. In-cylinder pressure analysis and emissions measurement were performed in a compression ignition engine. Injection timings, fuel quantity ratio between the injections were changed for the two cases, in which one fuel was injected using a port fuel injection system while the other was directly injected into the cylinder, in order to drastically vary mixture distributions and ignition timings. In addition, an optical diagnostic was performed in a rapid compression and expansion machine to develop an understanding of the ignition processes of the two mixtures.The experimental results show that not only the mixedness of the more reactive fuel n-heptane but also that of the less reactive fuel i-octane have significant impacts on the ignition timings, burn rates and emissions. As a first step to establish an optimum method of controlling burn…
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