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Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

Argonne National Laboratory-Munidhar Biruduganti, Douglas Longman
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Brian Kaul, John Storey, Amelia Elliott, Derek Siddel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0770
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
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Compatibility of Elastomers with Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers and Blends with Diesel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Martin Wissink, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Scott Curran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0620
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODEs) have shown promise as candidates for diesel fuel blendstocks due to their low sooting tendency, high cetane number, and diesel-comparable boiling point range. However, there is a lack of literature regarding compatibility of PODEs with common automotive elastomers, which would be a prerequisite to their adoption into the marketplace. To address this need, an exposure study and complementary solubility analysis were undertaken. A commercially available blend of PODEs with polymerization degree ranging from 3 to 6 was blended with diesel certification fuel at 0, 33, 50, 67, at 100% by volume. Elastomer coupons were exposed to the various blends for a period of 4 weeks and evaluated for volume swell. The elastomer materials included multiple fluoroelastomers (Viton and fluorosilicone) and acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), as well as neoprene, polyurethane, epichlorohydrin (ECO), PVC-nitrile blend (OZO), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), and silicone. The exposure results indicated overall poor compatibility for PODE, with every elastomer except for fluorosilicone exhibiting greater than 30% volume swell at the 33% blend level. The…
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Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory-Goutham Kukkadapu, Russell A. Whitesides
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Gina Fioroni, Lisa Fouts, Jon Luecke, Derek Vardon, Nabila Huq, Earl Christensen, Xiangchen Huo, Teresa Alleman, Robert McCormick
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0570
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C. Blendstocks needed to be soluble in diesel fuel, have a toxicity no worse than conventional diesel, not be corrosive, and be compatible with fuel system elastomers. Additionally, cloud point or freezing point below 0°C was required. Screening based on blendstock properties…
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Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Thermoplastics with Bio-Blendstock Fuel Candidates Using Hansen Solubility Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Brian H. West
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0004
Published 2018-03-01 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of key fuel system infrastructure plastics with 39 bio-blendstock fuel candidates was examined using Hansen solubility analysis. Fuel types included multiple alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, alkenes and one alkane. These compounds were evaluated as neat molecules and as blends with the gasoline surrogate, dodecane, and a mix of dodecane and 10% ethanol (E10D). The plastics included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE), along with several nylon grades. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels. The compatibility was assessed using Hansen solubility parameters and in many instances peak solubility occurred for blends rather than the neat fuel components. The results showed that good compatibilities can be expected for PPS, PVDF, PET, nylons, acetal, PEI, PVC, HDPE and PBT. PTFE showed potential incompatibilities at low blend concentrations, especially when E10D was used as the base fuel blend. Although, the nylons show…
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