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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry UB80E Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1286
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry front wheel drive eight-speed automatic transmission was benchmarked. The benchmarking data were used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.ALPHA requires both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission torque loss maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has developed a streamlined, cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This testing methodology targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over EPA’s city and highway drive cycles.With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling the transmission components and testing each separately. This paper describes the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data and the test results obtained. A UB80E eight-speed automatic transmission from a 2018 Toyota Camry was installed in an engine dynamometer test…
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Motor Vehicle Emission Control Quality Monitoring for On-Road Driving -- Dynamic Signature Recognition of NOx & NH3 Emissions

US Environmental Protection Agency-Xiaoguo Tang, John Kargul, Dan McBryde
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0372
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motor vehicles road drive emission test is important for exhaust emission regulation design/compliance and therefore the atmosphere air quality assessment. US EPA NVFEL has been developing a new approach of emission control dynamic signature to measure vehicle powertrain emission control behavior during both road and dyno driving. This so called signature device equipped with O2/NOx sensor, thermocouple and GPS to record exhaust NOx concentration, air fuel ratio controlled lambda, tailpipe temperature and vehicle speed (acceleration) dynamic signals. At the first stage, it was used to describe PCM control behaviors (cause/effect bijectivity) , then through a trained artificial neural-net (ANN) to distinguish normal control state-space and abnormal state-space (space distance). For the current stage, the emission control dynamic signature is used further to recognize NH3 releasing, and estimate NOx+NH3 during road and dyno driving, since the NH3 conversion can be observed by NOx sensor plus lambda rich biased reading after engine TWC warmed up. Stoich engine exhaust with TWC under certain conditions can have: CO+H2O→H2 & CO+NO+H2→NH3, it converts two regulated species into one unregulated compound,…
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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Southwest Research Institute-Josh Alden
US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Mark Stuhldreher, Daniel Barba, Charles Schenk, Stanislav Bohac, Joseph McDonald, Paul Dekraker
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0249
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels. The design and performance of this 2018 2.5-liter engine is described and compared to Toyota’s published data and to EPA’s previous projections of the efficiency of an Atkinson Cycle engine with cEGR. The Brake Thermal Efficiency…
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Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul, Daniel Barba, Joseph McDonald, Stanislav Bohac, Paul Dekraker, Andrew Moskalik
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0319
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.This article documents the test results for idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation, as well as motoring torque, wide-open throttle (WOT) torque, and fuel consumption during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels. Particular attention is given to characterizing enrichment control during high load engine operation. Results are used to create complete engine fuel consumption and efficiency maps and estimate CO2…
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Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Graham Conway, Dennis Robertson, Chris Chadwell
US Environmental Protection Agency-Joseph McDonald, John Kargul, Daniel Barba, Mark Stuhldreher
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP- EGR) combined with higher compression ratio, is a technology package that has been a focus of research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Research shows that the addition of LP-EGR reduces the propensity to knock that is experienced at higher compression ratios [1]. To investigate the interaction and compatibility between increased compression ratio and LP-EGR, a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI engine was modified to run with LP-EGR at a higher compression ratio (12:1 versus 10.5:1) via a piston change. This paper presents the results of the baseline testing on an engine run with a prototype controller and initially tuned to mimic an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) baseline control strategy running on premium fuel (92.8 anti-knock index). This paper then presents test results after first adding LP-EGR to the baseline engine, and then also increasing the compression ratio (CR) using 12:1 pistons. As a last step, the 10.5 CR engine with LP-EGR was run on regular fuel (87.7 anti-knock index) to verify that…
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Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

EPA Office of Mobile Sources-Mark Stuhldreher
US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba
Published 2017-11-17 by SAE International in United States
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This technique targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over the EPA city and highway drive cycles.This paper describes the method and test results of the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data. With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling…
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Fleet-Level Modeling of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emission Simulation in ALPHA

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Environmental Protection Agency-Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0899
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model.In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. Simulations conducted with ALPHA provide data on the effectiveness of various GHG reduction technologies, and reveal synergies that exist between technologies. The ALPHA model has been validated against a variety of vehicles with different powertrain configurations and GHG reduction technologies.This paper will present an overview of the laboratory benchmarking that was done to support validation of the ALPHA model. The paper discusses a variety of real world factors that influence the simulation of fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked. Updates have been made to the ALPHA model to…
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Investigating the Effect of Advanced Automatic Transmissions on Fuel Consumption Using Vehicle Testing and Modeling

SAE International Journal of Engines

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Aaron Hula, Daniel Barba, John Kargul
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1142
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is refining and revalidating their Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model.As part of the validation of ALPHA, the EPA obtained model year 2014 Dodge Chargers equipped with 3.6 liter V6 engines and either a NAG1 five-speed automatic transmission or an 845RE eight-speed automatic transmission. Vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer; test results showed eight-speed vehicles averaging 6.5% reduction in unadjusted combined city-highway fuel consumption compared to five-speed vehicles. In addition, an 845RE eight-speed transmission was obtained and tested in a standalone transmission test rig. The measured transmission parameters were used in ALPHA to simulate the behavior and fuel consumption of the eight-speed Dodge Charger. A companion…
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Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model

US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. From its database of engine and vehicle benchmarking data EPA identified the most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to model a midsized car incorporating combinations of these existing technologies which minimize GHG emissions. In a similar analysis, ALPHA was used to estimate the GHG emissions from future low-GHG technology packages potentially available in model year 2025. This paper presents the ALPHA model inputs, results and the lessons learned during this modeling…
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Design and Demonstration of EPA's Integrated Drive Module for Commercial Series Hydraulic Hybrid Trucks and Buses

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Daniel Barba, Jeffra Rockwell
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2850
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Center for Advanced Technology (NCAT), located at its National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been a global leader in development and demonstration of low-greenhouse gas emitting, highly fuel efficient series hydraulic hybrid drivetrain technologies. Advances in these exciting new technologies have stimulated industry to begin manufacturing hydraulic hybrids for both commercial truck and non-road equipment markets. Development activities are continuing for other markets, including light-duty vehicles. Given the commercial emergence of these low-greenhouse gas emitting series hydraulic hybrids, EPA has passed the leadership for further development to industry.This paper focuses specifically on the design and demonstration of the final series hydraulic hybrid drive for commercial trucks and buses as designed, built and demonstrated by EPA, incorporating many of innovative hydraulic technologies designed and advanced throughout EPA's hydraulic hybrid program. The unique integrated hydraulic drive module and its transmission in a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) configuration were installed in a 30-foot class 6 diesel midibus. This HHV was able to achieve 50-180%…
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