Your Selections

Jin, Xin
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of Subject-Specific Elderly Female Finite Element Models for Vehicle Safety

Chongqing University-Yunlei Yin, Junming Li, Qingmiao Wang
State Key Lab of Veh NVH & Safety Technology/Chongqing Univ-Wenxiang Dong, Zhenfei Zhan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Previous study suggested that female, thin, obese, and older occupants had a higher risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. Human body finite element models were a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. The mesh deformation method based on radial basis function(RBF) was an attractive alternative for morphing baseline model to target models. Generally, when a complex model contained many elements and nodes, it was impossible to use all surface nodes as landmarks in RBF interpolation process, due to its prohibitive computational cost. To improve the efficiency, the current technique was to averagely select a set of nodes as landmarks from all surface nodes. In fact, the location and the number of selected landmarks had an important effect on the accuracy of mesh deformation. Hence, how to select important nodes as landmarks was a significant issue. In the paper, an efficient peak point-selection RBF mesh deformation method was used to select landmarks. The multiple peak points were selected to expand landmarks set, so as to improve the morphing quality compared…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Research on the FE Modeling and Impact Injury of Obese 10-YO Children Based on Mesh Morphing Methodology

Chongqing University-Junming Li, Zhenfei Zhan, Yajing Shu, Gang Guo
Wayne State University-Ming Shen, Xin Jin
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the comprehensive protection for children with variable shapes and sizes, this paper conducted studies on the impact injury for obese children based on a 10-YO finite element model. Some specific geometrics on the body surface were firstly acquired by the combination of pediatric anthropometric database and generator of body (GEBOD). A Radial Basis Function (RBF) based mesh morphing technique was then used to modify the original standard size FE model using the obtained geometrics. The morphed FE model was validated based on the experimental data of frontal sled test and chest-abdomen impact test. The effects of obesity on injury performances were analyzed through simplified high-speed and low-speed crash simulations.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Reconstruction of Pediatric Occupant Kinematic Responses Using Finite Element Method in a Real-World Lateral Impact

Tianjin University of Science and Technology-Haiyan Li, Hongfei Zhao, Shihai Cui
Wayne State University-Xin Jin, Binhui Jiang, King H. Yang
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Computational human body models, especially detailed finite element models are suitable for investigation of human body kinematic responses and injury mechanism. A real-world lateral vehicle-tree impact accident was reconstructed by using finite element method according to the accident description in the CIREN database. At first, a baseline vehicle FE model was modified and validated according to the NCAP lateral impact test. The interaction between the car and the tree in the accident was simulated using LS-Dyna software. Parameters that affect the simulation results, such as the initial pre-crash speed, impact direction, and the initial impact location on the vehicle, were analyzed. The parameters were determined by matching the simulated vehicle body deformations and kinematics to the accident reports. The output speed and acceleration of rear seat from the vehicle-tree simulation will be directly applied to a simplified occupant-seat system using the CHARM-10 model to simulate the occupant-vehicle interaction in the next study. These results have shown that FE simulation can help in accident reconstruction and investigation of the pediatric injury in real-world impact accidents.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Introduction of Two New Pediatric Finite Element Models for Pedestrian and Occupant Protections

Hunan University-Binhui Jiang, Liqiang Dong
TEMA-Suk Jae Ham, Palani Palaniappan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
To help predict the injury responses of child pedestrians and occupants in traffic incidents, finite element (FE) modeling has become a common research tool. Until now, there was no whole-body FE model for 10-year-old (10 YO) children. This paper introduces the development of two 10 YO whole-body pediatric FE models (named CHARM-10) with a standing posture to represent a pedestrian and a seated posture to represent an occupant with sufficient anatomic details. The geometric data was obtained from medical images and the key dimensions were compared to literature data. Component-level sub-models were built and validated against experimental results of post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Most of these studies have been mostly published previously and briefly summarized in this paper. For the current study, focus was put on the late stage model development. After integrating all the sub-models to form the whole-body pedestrian model (standing), a set of positioning procedures was conducted to transform the pedestrian model into the occupant model (seated). In whole-body impact simulations, both FE models have shown marginally acceptable responses when compared…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Testing and Modeling the Responses of Hybrid III Crash-Dummy Lower Extremity under High-speed Vertical Loading

Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 4-Feng Zhu, Liqiang Dong, Xin Jin, Binhui Jiang, Anil Kalra, Ming Shen, King H. Yang
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
Anthropometric test devices (ATDs), such as the Hybrid III crash-test dummy, have been used to simulate lower-extremity responses to military personnel subjected to loading conditions from anti-vehicular (AV) landmine blasts. Numerical simulations [e.g., finite element (FE) analysis] of such high-speed vertical loading on ATD parts require accurate material parameters that are dependent on strain rate. This study presents a combined experimental and computational study to calibrate the rate-dependent properties of three materials on the lower extremities of the Hybrid III dummy. The three materials are heel-pad foam, foot skin, and lower-leg flesh, and each has properties that can affect simulation results of forces and moments transferred to the lower extremities. Specifically, the behavior of the heel-pad foam was directly calibrated through standard compression tests, and the properties of the foot skin and lower-leg flesh were calibrated based on an optimization procedure in which the material parameters were adjusted for best fit between the calculated force-deflection responses and least squares of the experimental data. The material models updated with strain-rate effects were then integrated into an…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Characterization of Human Rib Biomechanical Responses due to Three-Point Bending

Wayne State University-Anil Kalra, Tal Saif, Ming Shen, Xin Jin, Feng Zhu, Paul Begeman, King H., Scott Millis
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
In the elderly population, rib fracture is one of the most common injuries sustained in motor vehicle crashes. The current study was conducted to predict the biomechanical fracture responses of ribs with respect to age, gender, height, weight and percentage of ash content. Three-point bending experiments were conducted on 278 isolated rib samples extracted from 82 cadaver specimens (53 males and 29 females between the ages of 21 and 87 years) for 6th and 7th levels of ribs. Statistical analyses were carried out to identify differences based on age and gender. It was found that, in comparison to males, females had significantly lower values for maximum bending moments, slopes of bending moment-angle curves, and average cortical-bone thickness (p < 0.05). Samples of ribs taken from elderly specimens failed at lower values of fracture moments than those from younger specimens, and had lower slopes of bending moment-angle curves, both in males and females (p < 0.05). The generalized estimated equations were developed to predict the values of biomechanical response and average cortical thickness based on age,…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of an FE Model of the Rat Head Subjected to Air Shock Loading

Wayne State Univ.-Feng Zhu, Haojie Mao, Alessandra Dal Cengio Leonardi, Christina Wagner, Clifford C. Chou, Xin Jin, Cynthia Bir, Pamela VandeVord, King H. Yang, Albert I. King
Published 2010-11-03 by The Stapp Association in United States
As early as the 1950's, Gurdjian and colleagues (Gurdjian et al., 1955) observed that brain injuries could occur by direct pressure loading without any global head accelerations. This pressure-induced injury mechanism was "forgotten" for some time and is being rekindled due to the many mild traumatic brain injuries attributed to blast overpressure. The aim of the current study was to develop a finite element (FE) model to predict the biomechanical response of rat brain under a shock tube environment.The rat head model, including more than 530,000 hexahedral elements with a typical element size of 100 to 300 microns was developed based on a previous rat brain model for simulating a blunt controlled cortical impact. An FE model, which represents gas flow in a 0.305-m diameter shock tube, was formulated to provide input (incident) blast overpressures to the rat model. It used an Eulerian approach and the predicted pressures were verified with experimental data. These two models were integrated and an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) fluid-structure coupling algorithm was then utilized to simulate the interaction of the…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Normal Traction Loading at Varying Strain Rates

Tsinghua University-Guang Dong, Jinhuan Zhang
Wayne State University-Xin Jin, Liying Zhang, King H. Yang, Albert I. King
Published 2007-10-29 by The Stapp Association in United States
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. The mechanical properties of the bovine PAC under tensile loading have been characterized previously. However, the transverse properties of this structure, such as shear and normal traction which are equally important to understanding the skull/brain interaction under traumatic loading, have not been investigated. These material properties are essential information needed to adequately define the material model of the PAC in a finite element (FE) model of human brain. The purpose of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the PAC under normal traction loading. PAC specimens were obtained from freshly slaughtered bovine subjects from various locations. Quasi-static and dynamic tests along the radial direction were performed at four different strain rates (0.36, 2.0, 20.5, and 116.3 s-¹) to investigate the rate and regional effects. Results suggest that the PAC under traction loading is stiffer than brain tissue, rate dependent, and can be characterized as linearly elastic until failure.…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Tensile Loading at Varying Strain Rates

Wayne State Univ.-Xin Jin, Jong B. Lee, Lai Yee Leung, Liying Zhang, King H. Yang, Albert I. King
Published 2006-11-06 by The Stapp Association in United States
The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. However, the mechanical properties of the pia-arachnoid complex and its influence on the overall response of the brain have not been well characterized. Consequently, finite element (FE) brain models have tended to oversimplify the response of the pia-arachnoid complex, possibly resulting in a loss of accuracy in the model predictions.The aim of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the pia-arachnoid complex under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Specimens of the pia-arachnoid complex were obtained from the parietal and temporal regions of freshly slaughtered bovine subjects with the specimen orientation recorded. Single-stroke, uniaxial quasi-static and dynamic tensile experiments were performed at strain-rates of 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 100 s-1 (n = 10 for each strain rate group). Directional differences of the pia-arachnoid complex were also investigated. Results from this study revealed the pia-arachnoid complex was rate-dependent and isotropic, suggesting that the pia-arachnoid complex can provide omnidirectional support and…
Annotation ability available