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Iombriller, Silvia Faria
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Brake Pedal Feeling Comfort Analysis for Trucks with Pneumatic Brake System

Ford Motor Company-Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Marco Andre Silva, Lázaro Renato Oliveira
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand.Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel.On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior. However, for pneumatic brake systems, the pedal feel theoretical study is not usual, where is normally used for these developments, exclusively the subjective evaluation which become necessary to have more specialists to define the brake pedal behavior.Throughout this article will be revised the characteristics concepts…
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Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Marco Andre Silva
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers.ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events.Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year.In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.On 2015, NHTSA published Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 136, Electronic Stability Control systems for heavy vehicles, requiring Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds) for implementation in 2017.In South America, CONTRAN Resolution 641/2016 establishes mandatory installation of Electronic Stability and Rollover Control in Commercial…
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Brake System Regulations and Standards Review and Comparison Focused on Europe, NA and SA Markets

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado
Published 2017-09-17 by SAE International in United States
Considering that the most part of commercial vehicles are equipped with air brakes it is very important assure specific technical requirements for air brake system and its components. In addition, the effects of brake system failure are more critical for commercial vehicles which require more attention on their requirements details.Historically, the development of air brakes technology started on North America and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct resolutions were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE R.13, respectively.For passenger cars were developed the ECER.13H to harmonize North American and European resolutions. However, for commercial vehicles regional applications, culture and implementation time must be considered.These commercial vehicles peculiarities must be understood and their specific requirements harmonized to attend the global marketing growth.This article shows a review of the North American and European air brake requirements and also discusses their influence on the South America considering technical vision as well as strategies for introduction of global technology.Additionally were compared ISO, SAE and ABNT standards focusing in opportunities to improve South American requirements to have more safety vehicles.
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Methodology of Automatic Slack Brake Adjuster Definition Considering Foundation Brake System Characteristics

Ford Motor Company-Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Silvia Faria Iombriller
Fras-le S/A-Alexandre Roman
Published 2017-05-24 by SAE International in United States
S-cam brakes concept are largely used by commercial vehicles around the world due to its low cost, easy maintenance and robustness. An important component of s-cam brakes is the slack adjuster, that is responsible for amplify brake chamber forces and assure correct lining and drum clearance. Therefore usually slack adjuster mechanism characteristics are defined only by empiric method considering trial and error tentative.This paper aims to demonstrate a methodology created to develop new air s-cam brakes slack adjuster definition taken in consideration its interface with other brake components.During this study was identified design specification for each component and its influence on adjustment process. It was verified the intrinsic characteristics of slack adjuster mechanism and developed a calculation tool to predict its actuation on the brake. The interface of slack adjuster with other foundation brake components and drum compliance were also studied. In order to validate the methodology some vehicle tests were performed and the results are described and analyzed.
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Development of Full Air Pneumatic Suspension Type for Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The air suspension development and its applications have becoming increasingly relevant for commercial vehicles to provide dynamic ride comfort to driver and reduce the load impact onto driver and or cargo. This paper shows the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles and its dynamic influence.A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension´s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladed. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions.During the development quality tools were used, considering the possible failure modes and effects to guide the design changes in order to achieve the desired behavior, as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and rig test validations.Using data acquisition and vehicle test analysis, the improved dynamic results proposed were validated and considered as the final design solution.
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Development of Pneumatic Suspension Type Full Air for Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Misael Neris da Silva, Milton Monteverde Belli, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Paulo Henrique Knoll, Ramon Conde
Suspensys Sistemas Automotivos-Robson Netto, Eduardo Carraro
Published 2016-05-11 by SAE International in United States
The air suspension development and application has becoming increasingly applied also in commercial vehicles, offering to the driver more dynamic comfort as well as contributing to the reduction of impact loads on highways. Through this project pursuit show the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles application.A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension′s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladen. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain the vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions.For entire development were also used quality tools, considering the possible failure modes and effects as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and bench validations.Through data acquisition and vehicular analysis, the better dynamic results proposed was validated and considered the final design solution.
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Correlation Test: Guaporé Mountain Test vs Proving Ground

Ford Motor Co.-Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Silvia Faria Iombriller
Fras-le-Alexandre Roman
Published 2013-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Downhill tests are widely used as a method of evaluation, development and validation of braking efficiency, friction pair durability, braking balance, as well as fade characteristics and recovery of friction material properties. This test procedure is used for both: passenger vehicles and light & heavy commercial vehicles.The energy levels in the brake system are higher on commercial vehicles and the thermal characteristics much more critical. Added to the fact that such tests are conducted on public highways, it has an intrinsic security risk for both the vehicle tested and all others around.Until a few years ago, it was still feasible to conduct tests downhill on different routes keeping a high security level. Given an increasing traffic on highways, where the test is currently carried out, a need to create a similar downhill procedure (called Guaporé Mountain Test) within a Proving Ground under controlled conditions has been noticed.In addition to increased safety conditions to conduct tests by performing them in a well-controlled environment with known boundary conditions, it was also possible to increase the repeatability and…
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Methodology for Determining the Process of Riveting Brake Linings for Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Co.-Artur Safont Gutierrez, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado
Fras-le S.A.-Alexandre Roman, Carlos Henrique Selle Pereira
Published 2013-05-15 by SAE International in United States
During the development of a new friction material, besides the interface between lining/drum is also fundamental take in account all aspects involving the attachment of the linings on the brake shoes.This paper presents an optimization approach to the development and manufacturing parameters of brake linings, applied on medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles, aiming to assure the correct specification of the riveted joint clamp forces. These evaluations were conducted based on the quality tools documents and the theoretical aspects of the product usage as well as the modeling of key elements of the referred mechanism throughout various known applications. A calculation methodology was developed based on brake geometry, its generated forces and braking reactions required for each vehicle family. Taking in consideration the mathematical modeling of lining riveting process, the study incorporated calculated parameters on the production of new parts to proceed with bench and dynamometer preliminary tests. After theoretical approach an optimized process of lining riveting was implemented on the riveting machine focusing on its capacity to generate the required clamp force on a…
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Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Co.-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Dauri Eiras, Marcos Rogerio Souza
Published 2012-10-02 by SAE International in United States
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system.In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12.This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.The possible alternative materials have been tested under different chemical, mechanical and thermal conditions, also respecting specific characteristics on heavy commercial vehicles application. In addition, static, dynamic and cyclic aging tests were performed in order to simulate its performance through the entire life of…
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