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Inoue, Takao
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A Study of Particulate Emission Formation Mechanism from Injector Tip in Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imaoka, Yutaka Hashizume, Takao Inoue, Taisuke Shiraishi
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2244
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The mechanism causing in-cylinder injector tip soot formation, which is the main source of particle number (PN) emissions under operating conditions after engine warm-up, was analyzed in this study. The results made clear a key parameter for reducing injector tip soot PN emissions. An evaluation of PN emissions for different amounts of injector tip wetting revealed that an injector with larger tip wetting forms higher PN emissions. The results also clarified that the amount of deposits does not have much impact on PN emissions. The key parameter for reducing injector tip soot is injector tip wetting that has a linear relationship with injector tip soot PN emissions.
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A Study of Combustion Technology for a High Compression Ratio Engine: The Influence of Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature on Knocking

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imaoka, Kiyotaka Shouji, Takao Inoue, Toru Noda
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0703
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio is an example of a technology for improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. A significant issue of a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy and low-end torque is prevention of knocking under a low engine speed. Knocking is caused by autoignition of the air-fuel mixture in the cylinder and seems to be largely affected by heat transfer from the intake port and combustion chamber walls. In this study, the influence of heat transfer from the walls of each part was analyzed by the following three approaches using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiments conducted with a multi-cooling engine system. First, the temperature rise of the air-fuel mixture by heat transfer from each part was analyzed. Heat transfer from the intake port and cylinder head was found to be higher than that from other parts due to the high flow velocity during the intake stroke. Therefore,…
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A Study of a Multistage Injection Mechanism for Improving the Combustion of Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imaoka, Kiyotaka Shouji, Takao Inoue, Toru Noda
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0883
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Technologies for improving the fuel economy of gasoline engines have been vigorously developed in recent years for the purpose of reducing CO2 emissions. Increasing the compression ratio for improving thermal efficiency and downsizing the engine based on fuel-efficient operating conditions are good examples of technologies for enhancing gasoline engine fuel economy. A direct-injection system is adopted for most of these engines. Direct injection can prevent knocking by lowering the in-cylinder temperature through fuel evaporation in the cylinder. Therefore, direct injection is highly compatible with downsized engines that frequently operate under severe supercharging conditions for improving fuel economy as well as with high compression ratio engines for which susceptibility to knocking is a disadvantage. On the other hand, direct-injection engines have certain issues such as the need to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions, and technical measures must be developed for that purpose. Multistage injection is one method of improving direct-injection engines and has both advantages and disadvantages. One benefit of multistage injection is lower PM emissions caused by liquid fuel impinging on the cylinder wall. That…
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Effect of Spatial Distribution of Fuel Sprays on Diesel Spray Combustion

University of Hiroshima-Hiroyuki Hiroyasu, Keiya Nishida, Takao Inoue
Yanmar Diesel Co., Ltd.-Takanori Egashira
  • Technical Paper
  • 958607
Published 1995-07-18 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Characteristics of combustion and exhaust emissions of a D.I. diesel engine were investigated under various spatial arrangement of fuel sprays. A cylinder liner was elongated and a flat-top piston was installed in the engine to obtain a relatively large pancake-type combustion chamber. Six to twelve fuel injection nozzles with a single hole were installed in the elongated cylinder liner in parallel to each other, and one injection nozzle with six holes was installed in a cylinder head. Such modification of the engine made it possible to obtain radial arrangement of six fuel sprays and parallel arrangement of six to twelve sprays in the combustion chamber. The parallel arrangement of six to ten sprays showed shorter ignition delay than the radial arrangement of six sprays. Changing from the radial arrangement of six sprays to the parallel arrangement of six sprays reduced NOx and smoke emissions simultaneously with an increase in indicated mean effective pressure.