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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 2): Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In the previous paper (Part 1), measurements of equivalent temperature (teq) using a clothed thermal manikin and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation were discussed. In this paper (Part 2), the outline of the proposed mesh-free simulation method is described and comparisons between teq in the calculations and measurements under summer cooling with solar radiation and winter heating without solar radiation conditions in a vehicle cabin are discussed. The key factors for evaluating teq on each body segment of the clothed thermal manikin under cooling and heating conditions are also discussed. In the mesh-free simulation, even if there is a hole or an unnecessary shape on the CAD model, only a group of points whose density is controlled in the simulation area is generated without modifying the CAD model. Therefore, the fluid mesh required by conventional CFD code is not required, and the analysis load is significantly reduced. The most advantageous point is that this mesh-free simulation method satisfies the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The cabin thermal environment and…
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Evaluation of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin with a Numerical Thermal Manikin (Part 1): Measurement of Equivalent Temperature in a Vehicle Cabin and Development of a Numerical Thermal Manikin

AGC Inc.-Yoshiichi Ozeki, Seiko Suzuki
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Hajime Oi, Yasushi Ichikawa, Akira Matsumoto, Fusaaki Takeo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The present paper is Part 1 of two consecutive studies. Part 1 describes three subjects: definition of the equivalent temperature (teq), measurements of teq using a clothed thermal manikin in a vehicle cabin, and modeling of the clothed thermal manikin for teq simulation. After defining teq, a method for measuring teq with a clothed thermal manikin was examined. Two techniques were proposed in this study: the definition of “the total heat transfer coefficient between the skin surface and the environment in a standard environment (hcal)” based on the thermal insulation of clothing (Icl), and a method of measuring Icl in consideration of the area factor (fcl), which indicates the ratio of the clothing surface to the manikin surface area. Then, teq was measured in an actual vehicle cabin by the proposed method under two conditions: a summer cooling condition with solar radiation and a winter heating condition without solar radiation. The results showed that teq, including the effects of the air temperature, air velocity and thermal radiation, was measured properly. Subsequently, a numerical thermal manikin…
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Low-Cost FC System Concept with Fewer Parts and Adoption of Low-Cost Components

Nissan Motor Company Ltd.-Hayato Chikugo, Yasushi Ichikawa, Keigo Ikezoe
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The most important issues in putting fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) on the market include reducing the FC system size and cost. At Nissan, we have continued to research and develop key technologies for resolving these issues since the release of our 2005 model FCEV. This paper describes the low cost technologies that we have developed for our next-generation FCEV system.The current generation FC system uses an anode gas recirculation system for hydrogen supply to prevent fuel starvation and flooding caused by product water. However, an analysis of flow in the anode channel has led to a better understanding of the transient properties of a compressive fluid, indicating the possibility of eliminating the anode recirculation system. Instead of using an electronically controlled 3-way valve for the cooling system, we have adopted a general-purpose thermostatic valve with a new flow system that was designed by using the correlation between the viscosity and temperature of the coolant. Moreover, the heating function of the air conditioner has been integrated with the FC cooling system.As a result of developing…
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A Transient Mass Transport Analysis on the Anode Gas Channel of a PEMFC Using Compressible Fluid Dynamics

Yasushi Ichikawa, Keigo Ikezoe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0610
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The most important issues to introduce FCVs into the market are downsizing and cost reduction of the fuel cell stacks and its system components. From one of them, simplifying the hydrogen supplying system is highly expected. With the aim of eliminating the hydrogen recirculation system, transient mass transport analysis which are the CFD analysis with compressive low Re number flow field and a time-series measurement with mass spectroscopes to investigate the gas distribution in the anode flow channel have been implemented. This paper presents the time-varying gas concentration distribution.