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Hyncik, Ludek
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Rider Stature Influence to Injury Risk in Motorcycle Rear Impact to Car

Tianjin University of Science and Technology-Wenle Lv
University of West Bohemia-Ludek Hyncik, Tomasz Bonkowski
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Road traffic accidents cause one of the highest numbers of severe injuries. Approximately 1.25 million people die each year as a result of road traffic crashes and between 20 and 50 million more people suffer non-fatal injuries, with many incurring a disability. Nearly half of those dying on the roads are so-called vulnerable road users, namely pedestrians, cyclists and two-wheeler riders including motorcyclists. Those vulnerable road users usually undergo complex kinematics and complex loading caused by the other vehicle impact.Virtual human body biomechanical models play an important role to assess the injuries during the impact loading especially for scenarios, where complex dynamical loading is taken into account. An additional benefit of some virtual human models is their scalability, so that they can assess the injury risk for the particular subject taking into account a wide spectrum of the whole population.The presented work shows the motorcycle rider injury risk analysis during the rear motorcycle accident to the car using the virtual approach by the numerical simulation taking into account the variability of the human body. The…
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Novel Approach in Vehicle Front-End Modeling for Numerical Analyses of Pedestrian Impact Scenarios

Brano a.s.-Radek Valasek
IDIADA CZ a.s.-Tomas Moser
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a vehicle front-end is presented. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies connected via translational joints to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is calibrated using a headform or a legform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the distribution of stiffness of the front-end is taken into account. The model of the front-end is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. The VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent precisely the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident. Namely, injuries of head, chest and lower extremities are confirmed. Finally, mechanical response of developed vehicle model is compared to an FE model of the same vehicle in a pedestrian impact scenario. VIRTHUMAN model of a 13-year-old boy (150 cm, 40 kg) is chosen to represent the pedestrian and the lateral impact at 45…
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Prediction of Injury Risk in Pedestrian Accidents Using Virtual Human Model VIRTHUMAN: Real Case and Parametric Study

BRANO a.s.-Radek Valasek
IDIADA CZ a.s.-Tomas Moser
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In this work we present the VIRTHUMAN model as a tool for injury risk assessment in pedestrian crash scenarios. It is a virtual human body model formed of a multibody structure and deformable segments to account for the mechanical response of soft tissues. Extensive validation has been performed to ensure its biofidelity. Due to the scaling algorithm implemented, variations in the human population in terms of height, weight, gender and age can be considered. Assessment of the injury risk is done via automatic evaluation software developed. Injury criteria for individual body parts are evaluated using accelerations, forces and displacements of certain points. Injury risk is indicated by the colour of particular body parts in accordance with NCAP rating. A real accident is investigated in this work. A 60-year-old female was hit laterally by a passenger vehicle with the impact velocity of 40 km/h. The accident is reconstructed using VIRTHUMAN as pedestrian representative. Good agreement of the simulation and real data in terms of falling distance and injury sustained by pedestrian is obtained. Finally, a parametric…
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Stature Based Approach towards Vehicle Safety

MECAS ESI s.r.o.-Jaroslav Manas
Univ. of West Bohemia-Ludek Hyncik, Jan Spicka, Jan Vychytil
Published 2015-01-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety technology by the virtual approach using biomechanical virtual human body models. The goal of the paper is to exploit the previously developed scaling algorithm to create several virtual human models of a given age and body proportions and to assess the impact analysis using the sensitivity approach.Based on a validated reference model, the previously developed scaling algorithm develops virtual human body models for given height, mass, age and gender. Particular body segments are scaled based on the anthropometrical database concerning the body dimensions taking also percentiles into account. The body stiffness is driven by age dependent flexindex.Several virtual models of human bodies representing particular cadavers were generated via the automatic scaling algorithm. The frontal sled test response of three models was successfully compared to the available experimental data previously. Since all the sled tests concerned different seat and loading conditions, the models were further compared by running the same standard sled test. The particular model anthropometry dependent response was compared for the different body statures.
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Scalable Multi-Purpose Virtual Human Model for Future Safety Assessment

MECAS ESI s.r.o.-Jaroslav Manas, Ludek Kovar
University of West Bohemia-Jan Vychytil, Hana Cechova, Stanislav Spirk, Ludek Hyncik
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper concerns the development of a new scalable virtual human body model. The model has been developed to assess safety risk during various complex crash scenarios including impacts from different directions. The novel approach described couples the basic multi-body structure with deformable segments, resulting in short calculation time. Each multi-body structure segment carries the particular surface parts that are linked to the segment with non-linear springs representing the behavior of related soft tissues.The response of particular body segments (head, thorax, pelvis, lower extremities) is validated in known impact scenarios and the response of the model is tuned to the experimental corridors obtained from literature. The tuning process involved the adjustment of both model material and numerical parameters in order to get the correct response for all the tests. Several energy level impacts from different directions are usually considered in order to generalize the model; to test its robustness and correct biofidelic performance.The model is designed modularly to be simply adopted towards the pre-defined height, age and mass. The developed model is useful for the…
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Development of 6 Years Old Child Virtual Model by Automatic Scaling

MECAS ESI s.r.o.-Jaroslav Manas, Ludek Kovar
University of West Bohemia-Ludek Hyncik, Jan Spicka, Stanislav Spirk
Published 2014-03-24 by SAE International in United States
Traffic accidents cause one of the highest numbers of severe injuries in the whole population. The numbers of deaths or seriously injured citizens prove that traffic accidents and their consequences are still a serious problem to be solved.A lot of effort is devoted to both passive and active safety systems development. The transportation standards usually define safety requirements by regulations (e.g. ECE-R94, 96/79/EC and ECE-R95, 96/27/EC in Europe) with specific dummies for children to be used. The dummies include hardware sensors for monitoring accelerations, loads and other signals and each dummy is developed for a specific scenario, but there are limitations of these dummies, such as only a specific age or calibration just for a specific test. Taking into account that the consequence of a traffic accident is highly influenced by the stature of the body, virtual human body models, including those for children, start to play a significant role because they can be scaled or even personalized towards a particular population or even a particular person.The paper contributes to the field of vehicle safety…
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On Scaling Virtual Human Models

MECAS ESI s.r.o.-Ludek Kovar
University of West Bohemia-Ludek Hyncik, Hana Cechova, Pavel Blaha
Published 2013-03-25 by SAE International in United States
The paper contributes to the development of virtual biomechanical human models as a support for design and optimization of both passive and active safety systems used in various modes of transportation. The paper shows the scaling methodology as simply as possible to creating models based on a reference model regarding anthropology and flexibility.The paper describes the methodology for the scaling of hybrid human models based on a multi-body structure carrying deformable parts. The idea is to have a reference model and to create other models automatically based on the least possible number of parameters. The developed method takes into account the height, age, mass and flexibility of joints. The scaling process starts by scaling the reference model to the target height for given age (including correct height for each major segment of the human body) based on the available anthropometrical data. The scaling coefficient for each segment is also used to scale the segment mass. Secondly, the model mass is balanced to the target mass. Finally, the flexibility of all major joints is updated concerning…
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Virtual Car Crash Simulation

Charles Univ.-Josef Stingl, Alena Doubkova
Czech Technical Univ.-Jan Kovanda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-05-0291
Published 2004-05-23 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Korea in South Korea
The growing intensity of automotive traffic is accompanied by fluent elevation of frequency of car crashes joined in many cases with serious injuries and/or deaths of occupants. These facts strongly influence the efforts of car designers to improve the passive safety parameters, e.g., the restrain systems of cars, protecting above all the head, neck and thorax. In this way the most serious consequences of accidents should be restricted and ensure the passengers to survive the crash. Till now, less attention was paid to the protection of abdominal organs, whose injuries during traffic accidents can have very serious consequences.The work shows the simulation of a real frontal-car-to-car crash with offset between a passenger car and a truck. The aim of the task is the simulation of the passenger car driver behavior during the first crucial milliseconds of the accident. Based on police data (photos, accident plans and speed recorder), the analysis of the accident is thoroughly done and the deceleration of the crashing car is derived. Basic passenger car interior geometry is obtained and reconstructed as…