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A Study of Particulate Emission Formation Mechanism from Injector Tip in Direct-Injection Gasoline Engines

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Yoshihiro Imaoka, Yutaka Hashizume, Takao Inoue, Taisuke Shiraishi
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2244
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The mechanism causing in-cylinder injector tip soot formation, which is the main source of particle number (PN) emissions under operating conditions after engine warm-up, was analyzed in this study. The results made clear a key parameter for reducing injector tip soot PN emissions. An evaluation of PN emissions for different amounts of injector tip wetting revealed that an injector with larger tip wetting forms higher PN emissions. The results also clarified that the amount of deposits does not have much impact on PN emissions. The key parameter for reducing injector tip soot is injector tip wetting that has a linear relationship with injector tip soot PN emissions.
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A Study of the Knocking Mechanism in Terms of Flame Propagation Behavior Based on 3D Numerical Simulations

SAE International Journal of Engines

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsushi Teraji, Akihiko Kakuho, Tsuyoshi Tsuda, Yutaka Hashizume
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0699
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of knocking with respect to flame propagation behavior based on 3D simulations conducted with the Universal Coherent Flamelet Model. Flame propagation behavior under the influence of in-cylinder flow was analyzed on the basis of the calculated results and experimental visualizations. Tumble and swirl flows were produced in the cylinder by inserting various baffle plates in the middle of the intake port. A comparison of the measured and calculated flame propagation behavior showed good agreement for various in-cylinder flow conditions. The results indicate that in-cylinder flow conditions vary the flame propagation shape from the initial combustion period and strongly influence the occurrence of knocking.
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The Effect of Flame Propagation Behavior on Knocking Occurrence Using 3D Numerical Study

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsushi Teraji, Akihiko Kakuho, Tsuyoshi Tsuda, Yutaka Hashizume
  • Technical Paper
  • 2008-08-0453
Published 2008-10-22 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The aim of this paper is the understanding of knocking occurrence mechanism from the view of flame propagation behavior by using 3-D simulation with UCFM. The flame propagation behavior impacted by in-cylinder flow was analyzed by calculated results and experimental visualizations. The flows of tumble and swirl motion were given to in-cylinder by setting various baffle plates in the middle of intake port. The comparisons of the measured and calculated flame propagation behavior show good agreement for various conditions. The results indicate that in-cylinder flow varies flame propagation shape from initial combustion, and it has strong influence on knocking occurrence.
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Wide Range of Application for Mixture Concentration Measurement in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug Using Infrared Absorption

NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.-Akihiko Kakuho, Yutaka Hashizume, Tomonori Urushihara, Teruyuki Itoh
Renault-Thomas Mansion
  • Technical Paper
  • 2007-08-0717
Published 2007-10-01 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Giving some improvements of the measurement instrument of infrared absorption, local fuel concentration near the spark plug was measured continuously in one cycle in a wide operating condition including various engine loads with the high time resolution. It has been clarified that, in a comparatively homogeneous mixture, combustion performance could not be explained only by local air-fuel ratio near the spark plug, while combustion duration has strong relation to locally measured air-fuel ratio near the spark plug in the transition condition that the amount of the supplied fuel into cylinder changes every cycle.
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Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Akihiko Kakuho, Kevin R. Sholes, Yutaka Hashizume, Shohei Takatani, Tomonori Urushihara
Physical Science Inc.-Mark G. Allen
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz, enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture, and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions. The measurements sample a short-path region (5 mm) of the in-cylinder gases near the spark plug, which has been modified to provide optical access. Crank angle-resolved measurements are performed in a mass-production type engine.
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Simultaneous Measurement of In-Cylinder Temperature and Residual Gas Concentration in the Vicinity of the Spark Plug by Wavelength Modulation Infrared Absorption

Nissan Motor-Akihiko Kakuho, Kevin R. Sholes, Yutaka Hashizume, Tomonori Urushihara
Nissan Research & Development Inc.-Shohei Takatani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2006-08-0435
Published 2006-09-27 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper presents a new measurement technique for in-cylinder gas temperature and residual gas concentration during the compression stroke of an internal combustion (IC) engine. This technique is based on the infrared absorption of water vapor by a wavelength-modulated laser. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2f) was adopted to enable the short-path measurements over a wide range of temperatures and pressures corresponding to the late compression stroke in a typical automotive engine. The WMS-2f signal is detected through a bandpass filter at a width of 7.5 kHz enabling crank angle-resolved measurements. The temperature is determined from the ratio of optical absorption for two overtone transitions of water vapor in the intake gas mixture and the H2O concentration is determined from this inferred temperature and the absorption for one of the transitions. The measurements sample a short-path region (5 mm) of the in-cylinder gases near the spark plug, which has been modified to provide optical access. Crank angle-resolved measurements are performed in a mass-production-type engine.
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A Study of Air-Fuel Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection SI Engines

NISSAN MOTOR CO., Ltd-Akihiko Kakuho, Koichi Yamaguchi, Yutaka Hashizume, Tomonori Urushihara, Teruyuki Itoh
Okayama University-Eiji Tomita
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
An investigation was made into two approaches to air-fuel mixture formation in direct injection SI engines in which charge stratification is controlled by swirl or tumble gas motions, respectively. Particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and air-fuel ratio measurement by infrared absorption were used to analyze fuel transport from the fuel injector to the spark plug and the fuel vaporization process. The results obtained were then compared with measured data as to combustion stability. As a result, the reason why the effects of injection timing on combustion stability were different between the two approaches was made clear from the standpoint of the mixture formation process.
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