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Impact of Biodiesel Blends on Fuel Consumption and Emissions in Euro 4 Compliant Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Georgios Fontaras, Maria Kalogirou
BP Global Fuels Technology-Cassandra Higham
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1484
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) products derived from vegetable oils and animal fats are now widely used in European diesel fuels and their use will increase in order to meet mandated targets for the use of renewable products in road fuels. As more FAME enters the diesel pool, understanding the impact of higher FAME levels on the performance and emissions of modern light-duty diesel vehicles is increasingly important. Of special significance to Well-to-Wheels (WTW) calculations is the potential impact that higher FAME levels may have on the vehicle's volumetric fuel consumption.The primary objective of this study was to generate statistically robust fuel consumption data on three light-duty diesel vehicles complying with Euro 4 emissions regulations. These vehicles were evaluated on a chassis dynamometer using four fuels: a hydrocarbon-only diesel fuel and three FAME/diesel fuel blends containing up to 50% v/v FAME. One FAME type, a Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME), was used throughout. One vehicle was equipped only with an oxidation catalyst while the other two were also equipped with two types of Diesel Particulate Filters…
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The Effect of Sulphur-Free Diesel Fuel on the Measurement of the Number and Size Distribution of Particles Emitted from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Equipped with a Catalysed Particulate Filter

AEA Technology-Colin Dickens
BP-Diane Hall
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Following concern about the association between adverse health effects and ambient particulate concentrations, there are now an increasing number of heavy-duty Diesel engines fitted with catalysed particulate filters. These filters virtually eliminate carbon particle emissions but there is some evidence suggesting a potential to form a cloud of secondary nucleation particles post trap. This event occurs at high temperature operating conditions and is produced mainly from the increased sulphate production over the catalyst. This paper investigates the measurement of particle emissions from a heavy-duty engine operating over the European legislated cycle, both with and without a filter fitted and investigates how emissions are affected by the use of a sulphur-free Diesel fuel. The work also demonstrates a contribution to the measured nucleation particles from material desorbed not only from the trap, but also from the exhaust system.
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An Investigation Into the Effect of a Diesel/Water Emulsion on the Size and Number Distribution of the Particulate Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

BP-Diane Hall, Claire Thorne, Goodier Steven
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
The current test programmes have measured emissions from a heavy-duty bus engine installed on a test bench and also on a chassis dynamometer whilst running on a Diesel/water emulsion fuel. Testing was carried out over both steady state and transient test cycles. Emissions were also measured on the test bed from the engine fitted with both a Diesel particulate filter and an oxidation catalyst. Alongside the measurement of the regulated emissions, particle number distributions (by size) and total particle counts were also measured. Size selected particle counts were made over the transient tests and are compared between engine test and chassis dynamometer. This paper demonstrates the influence of the emulsion on the particle size distribution, the effects of after-treatment and lubricant on the particle size emissions of an engine running on an emulsion and also the influence of sampling conditions on the measurements recorded.
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DETR/SMMT/CONCAWE Particulate Research Programme: Light Duty Results

CONCAWE, BP; CONCAWE, Shell-Diane Hall, Richard Stradling
Ricardo Consulting Engineers-Jon D Andersson, Barbara G. A. Wedekind
Published 2001-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The DETR/SMMT/CONCAWE Particulate Research Programme was designed to investigate the effects of vehicle/engine technology level, fuel specification and various operating conditions on emissions of particle mass, number and size. Results from the heavy duty part of the programme and details of the measuring protocols have already been published. This paper gives the results of the light duty study. This consisted of six vehicles and eight fuels covering gasoline, Diesel and LPG technologies.These six vehicles represented Euro II (1996) and Euro III (2000) technologies. Diesel fuels included EN590 (1996), EN590 (2000), UK ultra low sulphur Diesel (UK ULSD) and Swedish Class I Diesel, while gasoline fuels comprised EN228 (1996), EN228 (1999) and UK ultra low sulphur gasoline (UK ULSG).Particle mass measurements were undertaken via the regulated method while the mass weighted size distribution was determined with a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) covering a size range from <56nm to 10μm. Particle number measurements and number-size distributions were performed with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). In addition to the particulate mass, the other regulated emissions…
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DETR/SMMT/ CONCAWE Particle Research Programme: Heavy Duty Results

CONCAWE, BP-Diane Hall
CONCAWE, Shell-Richard Stradling
Published 2000-10-16 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in mass and number based heavy duty diesel engine particle emissions with respect to various test conditions, engine technologies and fuel specifications. Comparative particle size data and regulated particulate matter are presented from three heavy duty engines and three fuels.This paper describes results from the DETR/CONCAWE/SMMT Particle Research Programme. Three heavy duty diesel (HDD) engines representing Euro I, II and III technologies were tested with a range of fuels. These fuels included UK ultra low sulphur diesel (UK-ULSD), EN590 (EU2000) specification and Swedish Class I fuels.Continuing research suggests that when changes in regulated particulate mass emissions are compared to both individual mode and total cycle mass and number weighted particle size distributions there is often no significant correlation. In an attempt to provide further data in this area the following measurement methodology was adopted.Two Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instruments measuring number weighted particle size distribution were employed in order to cover a measurement range from ∼7nm to ∼710nm. The different configurations used with these…
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DETR/SMMT/CONCAWE Particle Research Programme: Sampling and Measurement Experiences

CONCAWE, BP-Diane Hall
CONCAWE, Shell-Richard Stradling
Published 2000-10-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the observed effects of parameters such as tunnel dilution ratio, test procedures and measurement methods on particle emissions. Attention is drawn to the transient behavior of nanoparticles within real legislated cycle conditions using conventional dilution systems. The aim of the paper is to communicate the limitations of widely used measurement equipment to enable a more confident interpretation of the particle size data.The paper describes the information obtained during the DETR/CONCAWE/SMMT Particle Research Programme with regard to the sampling and measurement of particles emitted from light duty vehicles and heavy duty engines. Light duty vehicles were tested on gasoline, diesel and LPG, while heavy duty engines were tested on both diesel and compressed gaseous fuels. Two Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instruments were employed in order to cover a measurement range from a lower limit of ∼7nm up to ∼710nm. Particle mass measurements were undertaken with a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) covering a size range from <56nm to >10μm. Regulated Particulate matter measurements were also taken.The two SMPS systems performed well…
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