by The Stapp Association in United States
In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties.In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have…
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by SAE International in United States
A 50th percentile male pelvis finite element model was designed for impact simulation. Shell elements represented the pelvic bone, which geometry was taken into account. Non linear viscous springs accounted for soft tissues connecting skin to bone structure, and body segments inertia around the pelvis were represented using rigid bodies. Geometric and mechanical characteristics were taken either from litterature or by identification to in house experimental results. Three dimensional movements were reproduced by the model for static lateral loading and dynamic lateral impact simulation at two different velocities, 3.5 and 6.5 m/s, with a good agreement with experimental results. This model takes into account pelvic bone geometry, allowing an appreciation of its deformation and therefore injury risk.
ENSAM-F. Renaudin, H. Guillemot, F. Lavaste, N. Skalli
by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
After frontal impact and together with the development of dummies (EUROSID, BIOSID), side impact has become one of the principal targets of the investigators in car safety. In this configuration, pelvis is especially involved accounting for 14% of the injuries. The experimental studies on cadavers or dummies are expensive and need a lot of time to prepare and to analyze. On the other hand, the increasing power of computer and software now allows simulation of impacts using more and more sophisticated models of the human body. In order to design a finite elements model of the pelvis in side impact, a first stage consists in the construction and the evaluation of bony pelvis model in axial loading. So, this study is twofold: a model and an experiment. To achieve this model static tests were necessary. They reach different targets. They first supply geometrical and mechanical characteristics of bony pelvis, then allow a static validation of the model.
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