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Long-Term Evolution of Straight Crossing Path Crash Occurrence in the U.S. Fleet: The Potential of Intersection Active Safety Systems

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Max Bareiss, H. Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Intersection collisions currently account for approximately one-fifth of all crashes and one-sixth of all fatal crashes in the United States. One promising method of mitigating these crashes and fatalities is to develop and install Intersection Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (I-ADAS) on vehicles. When an intersection crash is imminent, the I-ADAS system can either warn the driver or apply automated braking. The potential safety benefit of I-ADAS has been previously examined based on real-world cases drawn from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). However, these studies made the idealized assumption of full installation in all vehicles of a future fleet. The objective of this work was to predict the reduction in Straight Crossing Path (SCP) crashes due to I-ADAS systems in the United States over time. The proportion of new vehicles with I-ADAS was modeled using Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) fleet penetration predictions. The number of potential SCP conflicts was modeled as increasing year over year due to a predicted increase in Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) each year. Finally, the combined effect of…
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Estimating Benefits of LDW Systems Applied to Cross-Centerline Crashes

Toyota Motor Corp-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-David Holmes, H. Gabler
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Objective:Opposite-direction crashes can be extremely severe because opposing vehicles often have high relative speeds. The most common opposite direction crash scenario occurs when a driver departs their lane driving over the centerline and impacts a vehicle traveling in the opposite direction. This cross-centerline crash mode accounts for only 4% of all non-junction non-interchange crashes but 25% of serious injury crashes of the same type. One potential solution to this problem is the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) system which can monitor the position of the vehicle and provide a warning to the driver if they detect the vehicle is moving out of the lane. The objective of this study was to determine the potential benefits of deploying LDW systems fleet-wide for avoidance of cross-centerline crashes.Methods:In order to estimate the potential benefits of LDW for reduction of cross-centerline crashes, a comprehensive crash simulation model was developed. The basis for the model were the records of 42 crashes extracted from the National Motor Vehicles Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) database corresponding to 19,467 crashes nationwide. Each crash was simulated…
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Analysis of Event Data Recorder Survivability in Crashes with Fire, Immersion, and High Delta-V

John Hinch
Virginia Tech-Ada H. Tsoi, H. Gabler
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Event data recorders (EDRs) must survive regulatory frontal and side compliance crash tests if installed within a car or light truck built on or after September 1, 2012. Although previous research has shown that EDR data are surviving these tests, little is known about whether EDRs are capable of surviving collisions of higher delta-v, or crashes involving vehicle fire or immersion. The goal of this study was to determine the survivability of light vehicle EDRs in real world fire, immersion, and high change in velocity (delta-v) cases. The specific objective was to identify the frequency of these extreme events and to determine the EDR data download outcome when subject to damage caused by these events.This study was performed using three crash databases: the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), the National Automotive Sampling System / Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), and the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS). Fire, immersion, and high delta-v crashes were relatively rare. Vehicles were exposed to vehicle fire and immersion in less than 1% of all crashes. Similarly, EDRs were subject…
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Survivability of Event Data Recorder Data in Exposure to High Temperature, Submersion, and Static Crush

John Hinch
L-3 Communications Aviation Recorders-Michael Winterhalter
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Event data recorder (EDR) data are currently only required to survive the crash tests specified by Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 208 and FMVSS 214. Although these crash tests are severe, motor vehicles are also exposed to more severe crashes, fire, and submersion. Little is known about whether current EDR data are capable of surviving these events. The objective of this study was to determine the limits of survivability for EDR data for realistic car crash conditions involving heat, submersion, and static crush.Thirty-one (31) EDRs were assessed in this study: 4 in the pilot tests and 27 in the production tests. The production tests were conducted on model year (MY) 2011-2012 EDRs enclosed in plastic, metal, or a combination of both materials. Each enclosure type was exposed to 9 tests. The high temperature tests were divided into 3 oven testing conditions: 100°C, 150°C, and 200°C. In the submersion tests, EDRs were submerged to a depth of 3 meters in either distilled, tap, or salt water, and then placed in an oven to dry at…
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Fleetwide Safety Benefits of Production Forward Collision and Lane Departure Warning Systems

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Virginia Tech-Kristofer D. Kusano, H. Gabler, Thomas I. Gorman
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0166
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) and Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems are two active safety systems that have recently been added to the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) evaluation. Vehicles that pass confirmation tests may advertise the presence of FCW and LDW alongside the vehicle's star safety rating derived from crash tests. This paper predicts the number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the U.S. fleet were equipped with production FCW and/or LDW systems. Models of each system were developed using the test track data collected for 16 FCW and 10 LDW systems by the NCAP confirmation tests. These models were used in existing fleetwide benefits models developed for FCW and LDW.The 16 FCW systems evaluated could have potentially prevented between 9% and 53% of all rear-end collisions and prevented between 19% and 60% of injured (MAIS2+) drivers. Earlier warning times prevented more warnings and injuries. The lower operating speed thresholds of some systems also greatly affected benefits estimates. The results of this study suggest that future FCW…
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Validation of Event Data Recorders in Side-Impact Crash Tests

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Virginia Tech-Ada Tsoi, Nicholas Johnson, H. Gabler
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0503
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This study evaluated the accuracy of 75 Event Data Recorders (EDRs) extracted from model year 2010-2012 Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, and Toyota vehicles subjected to side-impact moving deformable barrier crash tests. The test report and vehicle-mounted accelerometers provided reference values to assess the EDR reported change in lateral velocity (delta-v), seatbelt buckle status, and airbag deployment status.Our results show that EDRs underreported the reference lateral delta-v in the vast majority of cases, mimicking the errors and conclusions found in some longitudinal EDR accuracy studies. For maximum lateral delta-v, the average arithmetic error was −3.59 kph (−13.8%) and the average absolute error was 4.05 kph (15.9%). All EDR reports that recorded a seatbelt buckle status data element correctly recorded the buckle status at both the driver and right front passenger locations. For equipped vehicles that reported side torso, side curtain, and frontal airbag deployment information, all vehicles recorded the correct status. Although only model year 2013 and later EDRs must meet Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 Part 563, seatbelt buckle status and frontal…
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Assessment of Heavy Vehicle EDR Technologies

Virginia Tech-H. Gabler
Virginia Tech Transportation Institute-Darrell Bowman, Andrew Marinik
Published 2013-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-vehicle event data recorders (HVEDRs) provide a source of temporal vehicle data just prior to, during, and for a short period after, an event. In the 1990s, heavy-vehicle (HV) engine manufacturers expanded the capabilities of engine control units (ECU) and engine control modules (ECM) to include the ability to record and store small amounts of parametric vehicle data. This advanced capability has had a significant impact on vehicle safety by helping law enforcement, engineers, and researchers reconstruct events of a vehicle crash and understand the details surrounding that vehicle crash. Today, EDR technologies have been incorporated into a wide range of heavy vehicle (HV) safety systems (e.g., crash mitigation systems, air bag control systems, and behavioral monitoring systems). However, the adoption of EDR technologies has not been uniform across all classes of HVs or their associated vehicle systems. The objective of this research was to assess the current capabilities of HVEDRs and to evaluate the feasibility of installing HVEDRs or related technologies on the HV fleet with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) greater than…
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Validation of a Driver Recovery Model Using Real-World Road Departure Cases

Virginia Tech-Allison Daniello, Kristofer Kusano, H. Gabler
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Predicting driver response to road departure and attempted recovery is a challenging but essential need for estimating the benefits of active safety systems. One promising approach has been to mathematically model the driver steering and braking inputs during departure and recovery. The objective of this paper is to compare a model developed by Volvo, Ford, and UMRTI (VFU) through the Advanced Crash Avoidance Technologies (ACAT) Program against a set of real-world departure events. These departure events, collected by Hutchinson and Kennedy, include the vehicle's off road trajectory in 256 road departure events involving passenger vehicles. The VFU-ACAT model was exercised for left side road departures onto the median of a divided highway with a speed limit of 113 kph (70 mph).At low departure angles, the VFU-ACAT model underpredicted the maximum lateral and longitudinal distances when compared to the departure events measured by Hutchinson and Kennedy. Two sets of driver parameters were used to simulate the trajectories, and similar results were seen for the two sets of driver parameters. Vehicles experienced control loss at higher departure…
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Predicting emission and mean air quality in underground garages

Bayerisches Landesamt für Umweltschutz (LfU)-P. Rabl
Referat für Gesundheit und Umwelt-M. Sinn, H. Gabler
  • Technical Paper
  • 1999-23-0026
Published 1999-05-31 by Technical University of Graz in Austria
Air quality measurements in garages indicate that high pollutant concentrations caused by car-induced emissions may occur. In order to predict the emissions and air quality in a particular garage, a numerical model is required. With the garage volume, parking capacity, air exchange rate and temporal distribution of incoming and outgoing cars as input, the model should be useable to calculate the variation of the emissions and the mean concentrations of CO, NO, NO2, HC, benzene and soot in the garage. Such a model will be presented. To evaluate the method, measurements in 2 different garages were carried out. The predicted emission factors for CO, HC and benzene agree to a large extent, while the factor for Nox agree approximately with the results derived from the measurements. The evaporation of benzene by fuel talk ventilation was underestimated by the theoretical values by a factor of 3. In respect to soot, this corresponds to the results of other authors. The study demonstrates that by combing the emission and mixture models, it is possible to predict air-quality in…