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Real-World Emission Modeling and Validations Using PEMS and GPS Vehicle Data

US Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Carl Fulper, Joseph McDonald, Michael Olechiw
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) are used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure gaseous and particulate mass emissions from vehicles in normal, in-use, on-the-road operation to support many of its programs, including assessing mobile source emissions compliance, emissions factor assessment for in-use fleet modeling, and collection of in-use vehicle operational data to support vehicle simulation modeling programs. This paper discusses EPA’s use of Global Positioning System (GPS) measured altitude data and electronically logged vehicle speed data to provide real-world road grade data for use as an input into the Gamma Technologies GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model. The GPS measured altitudes and the CAN vehicle speed data were filtered and smoothed to calculate the road grades by using open-source Python code and associated packages. Ambient temperature, ambient pressure, humidity, wind direction, and speeds were used to simulate actual driving environment conditions, and to calculate vehicle performance, fuel economy, and emissions associated with environmental effects. Complete engine maps, transmission efficiencies, and vehicle data were used as inputs into the GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model to estimate fuel economy,…
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Measurement and Analysis of the Operations of Drayage Trucks in the Houston Area in Terms of Activities and Exhaust Emissions

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eastern Research Group, Inc.-Alan P. Stanard, Sandeep Kishan, Michael Sabisch
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Carl Fulper
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0007
Published 2018-05-22 by SAE International in United States
The effects of exhaust emissions on public welfare have prompted the US Environmental Protection Agency to take various actions toward understanding, modeling, and reducing air pollution from vehicles. This study was performed to better understand exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel-powered tractor-trailer trucks that operate in drayage service, which involves the moving of shipping containers to or from port terminals. The study involved the use of portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) to measure both gaseous and particulate matter (PM) mass emission rates and record various vehicle and engine parameters from the test trucks as they performed their normal drayage service. These measurements were supplemented with port terminal gate entry/exit logs for all drayage trucks entering the two Port of Houston Authority container terminals. The datasets were combined to analyze model year characteristics of drayage trucks over time, evaluate port visit frequencies and durations, assess geographic distributions of trucks that perform port service, and estimate the pollutant emissions related to drayage operations. When compared to certification results, measured pollutant emissions generally exceeded certification standards in terms of…
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Analysis of Evaporative and Exhaust-Related On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Readiness Monitors and DTCs Using I/M and Roadside Data

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Eastern Research Group, Inc.-Michael Sabisch, Meredith Weatherby, Sandeep Kishan
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Carl Fulper
  • Journal Article
  • 07-11-01-0001
Published 2018-03-01 by SAE International in United States
Under contract to the EPA, Eastern Research Group analyzed light-duty vehicle OBD monitor readiness and diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) using inspection and maintenance (I/M) data from four states. Results from roadside pullover emissions and OBD tests were also compared with same-vehicle I/M OBD results from one of the states. Analysis focused on the evaporative emissions control (evap) system, the catalytic converter (catalyst), the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and the oxygen sensor and oxygen sensor heater (O2 system). Evap and catalyst monitors had similar overall readiness rates (90% to 95%), while the EGR and O2 systems had higher readiness rates (95% to 98%). Approximately 0.7% to 2.5% of inspection cycles with a “ready” evap monitor had at least one stored evap DTC, but DTC rates were under 1% for the catalyst and EGR systems, and under 1.1% for the O2 system, in the states with enforced OBD programs. Monitor readiness decreased, and DTC rates increased, as vehicles aged. DTCs were typically limited to a small subset of all possible DTCs for any particular system. For…
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In-Use Emissions from Non-road Equipment for EPA Emissions Inventory Modeling (MOVES)

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Eastern Research Group Inc.-Sandeep Kishan, Michael A. Sabisch
Sensors Inc.-Paul W. Clark, Christopher L. Darby, Carl Ensfield, Don Henry, Ron Yoder
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1952
Published 2010-10-05 by SAE International in United States
Because of U.S. EPA regulatory actions and the National Academies National Research Council suggestions for improvements in the U.S. EPA emissions inventory methods, the U.S. EPA' Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) has made a concerted effort to develop instrumentation that can measure criteria pollutant emissions during the operation of on-road and off-road vehicles. These instruments are now being used in applications ranging from snowmobiles to on-road passenger cars to trans-Pacific container ships. For the betterment of emissions inventory estimation these on-vehicle instruments have recently been employed to measure time resolved (1 hz) in-use gaseous emissions (CO₂, CO, THC, NO) and particulate matter mass (with teflon membrane filter) emissions from 29 non-road construction vehicles (model years ranging from 1993 to 2007) over a three year period in various counties in Iowa, Missouri, and Kansas. In coincidence with the pollutant measurements exhaust flow, engine speed, and in a few cases engine power from the vehicle engine control module have been measured. From these exhaust and engine operation measurements pollutant mass emission rates, mass concentrations, mass…
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