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Study on the effects on Diesel LTC combustion of 2-EHN as cetane improver

Universite D'Orleans-Fabrice Foucher
Université d'Orleans-Richard Oung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1125
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A single cylinder Diesel engine was used to study Diesel and LTC combustion. We evaluated the 2-EthylHexyl Nitrate (2-EHN) as Cetane improver distributed by VeryOne@ on the combustion of six diesel fuel prepared from a low Cetane Number (CN) diesel fuel (CN of 43.7) and two biodiesel mixed at 20% with the low Cetane number diesel fuel : Soybean oil Methyl Ester (SME) and Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester (RME). Each fuels doped with the 2-EHN were prepared to meet the minimum European CN, 51. LTC strategies could provide low NOx emission without thermal efficiency deterioration. The study investigated engine operation at loads of 2, 6 and 10 bar IMEP at engine speed of 1250 rpm, 1500 rpm and 2000 rpm and the impact against synthetic EGR up to 30%. The low-temperature decomposition of 2-EHN, resulting in the oxidation of the fuel, makes it possible to achieve a very low cycle-to-cycle variation of the IMEP even at very low load or at a very high rate of EGR. From kinetic mechanism analysis, we had shown that…
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Measurements and modeling of ozone enhanced compression ignition in a rapid compression machine and optically-accessible engine

Laboratoire PRISME, Université d’Orléans, INSA CVL, 8 rue Lé-Nicolas Seignour, Fabrice Foucher, Bruno Moreau
Sandia National Laboratories, MS 9053, PO Box 969, Livermore-Isaac Ekoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2254
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
For the present study, an ultraviolet light absorption diagnostic was used to measure O3 concentration during the compression stroke of a rapid compression machine and an optically-accessible research engine. Charge oxygen concentration, initial temperature, and equivalence ratio were varied; neat iso-octane was used for fueled experiments. Measurements were compared to single-zone chemical kinetic simulation results. Rapid thermally induced O3 decomposition was observed near top dead center. Ozone decomposition advanced when the charge temperature was increased, oxygen concentration was reduced, or fuel was added. While the model well-captures the experimental trends, for unfueled conditions the temporal prediction of O3 decomposition is generally too far retarded.
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Exploring and Modeling the Chemical Effect of a Cetane Booster Additive in a Low-Octane Gasoline Fuel

IFP Energies Nouvelles-Minh Duy LE, Mickaël Matrat, Arij Ben Amara
LRGP, CNRS-Université de Lorraine-Pierre-Alexandre Glaude
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0069
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Increasing the internal combustion engine efficiency is necessary to decrease their environmental impact. Several combustion systems demonstrated the interest of low temperature combustion to move toward this objective. However, to ensure a stable combustion, the use of additives has been considered in a several studies. Amongst them, 2-Ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) is considered as a good candidate for these systems but characterizing its chemical effect is required to optimize its use. In this study, its promoting effect (0.1 - 1% mol.) on combustion has been investigated experimentally and numerically in order to better characterize its behavior under different thermodynamic and mixture. Rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments were carried out at equivalence ratio 0.5 and pressure 10 bar, from 675 to 995 K. The targeted surrogate fuel is a mixture of toluene and n-heptane in order to capture the additive effect on both cool flame and main ignition. A kinetic model was developed from literature data assembly and validated upon a large set of variations including species profiles and ignition delays of pure compounds as well as…
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Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Early Flame Propagation Stages in Operating Conditions Representative of Modern High Efficiency Spark Ignition Engines

IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-Alessio Dulbecco, Gregory Font
Université D'Orléans-Fabrice Foucher, Pierre BREQUIGNY
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The present social context imposes effective reductions of transport greenhouse gases and pollutant emissions. To answer to this demand, car manufacturers adopted technologies such as downsizing, turbocharging, intense in-cylinder aerodynamics and diluted combustion process. In this context, to master mixture ignition is crucial to ensure an efficient heat release. To get to a clearer knowledge about the physics holding early stages of premixed mixture combustion, the PRISME institute in the framework of the French government research project ANR MACDOC generated a consistent experimental database to study ignition and spherical flame propagation processes in a constant volume vessel in laminar and turbulent environment. This allows to have a detailed description of the flame dynamics of an air / isooctane mixture depending on thermochemical properties of the mixture and nature of the diluent (O2, H2O, CO2 and synthetic stoichiometric exhaust gas recirculation), as well as on turbulence intensity and ignition energy. A system simulation model based on the coherent flame model approach was then setup at IFP Energies nouvelles accounting for the influence of the flame stretch,…
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Generation and Oxidation of Soot due to Fuel Films Utilizing High Speed Visualization Techniques

Continental Automotive France-Jerome Helie
Continental Automotive Systems-William Imoehl
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
For a better understanding of how soot is generated due to fuel films, a constant volume vessel was used together with four visualization techniques due to their high spatial (2D) and time resolution: Schlieren, natural luminosity, diffused back illumination and OH* chemiluminescence. The analysis was performed keeping the injection pressure at 30 bar and changing the plate temperature on which the spray impacts: 80, 120, 160 and 200 °C. The fuel is a mixture of iso-octane, hexane, toluene and 1-methylnaphthalene, which presents similar properties to commercial gasoline. Valuable insights were gained from the results that infer the real nature of the radiation observed during combustion events in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines due to the presence of a fuel films which are conventionally described as “pool fires”. The results show that the highest quantity of soot is generated between plate temperatures of 80 and 120 °C. The composition of the fuel film and the flow field generated after the passage of the flame front are of paramount importance in the description of the soot generated…
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Mechanisms of Enhanced Reactivity with Ozone Addition for Advanced Compression Ignition

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Sandia National Laboratories-Isaac Ekoto
Université d'Orléans-Fabrice Foucher
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1249
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Mechanisms responsible for enhanced charge reactivity with intake added ozone (O3) were explored in a single-cylinder, optically accessible, research engine configured for low-load advanced compression ignition (ACI) experiments. The influence of O3 concentration (0-40 ppm) on engine performance metrics was evaluated as a function of intake temperature and start of injection for the engine fueled by iso-octane, 1-hexene, or a 5-component gasoline surrogate. For the engine fueled by either the gasoline surrogate or 1-hexene, 25 ppm of added O3 reduced the intake temperature required for stable combustion by 65 and 80°C, respectively.An ultraviolet (UV) light absorption diagnostic was also used to measure crank angle (CA) resolved in-cylinder O3 concentrations for select motored and fired operating conditions. The O3 measurements were compared to results from complementary 0D chemical kinetic simulations that utilized detailed chemistry mechanisms augmented with O3 oxidation chemistry. From the measurements, rapid thermally induced O3 decomposition was observed during the compression stroke shortly before top dead center (TDC). Ozone decomposition advanced when the charge temperature was increased, oxygen concentration was reduced, or fuel was…
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Ammonia-Hydrogen Blends in Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition Engine

Université catholique de Louvain-Maxime Pochet, Hervé Jeanmart
Université d'Orléans-Ida Truedsson, Fabrice Foucher
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Ammonia and hydrogen can be produced from water, air and excess renewable electricity (Power-to-fuel) and are therefore a promising alternative in the transition from fossil fuel energy to cleaner energy sources. An Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) engine is therefore being studied to use both fuels under a variable blending ratio for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) production. Due to the high auto-ignition resistance of ammonia, hydrogen is required to promote and stabilize the HCCI combustion. Therefore the research objective is to investigate the HCCI combustion of varying hydrogen-ammonia blending ratios in a 16:1 compression ratio engine. A specific focus is put on maximizing the ammonia proportion as well as minimizing the NOx emissions that could arise from the nitrogen contained in the ammonia. A single-cylinder, constant speed, HCCI engine has been used with an intake pressure varied from 1 to 1.5 bar and with intake temperatures ranging from 428 to 473 K. Stable combustion was achieved with up to 70 %vol. ammonia proportion by increasing the intake pressure to 1.5 bar, the intake temperature to 473…
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Potential of Ozone to Enable Low Load Operations of a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine

Fabrice Foucher
Université d'Orléans-Pietro Matteo Pinazzi
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engines based on Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (GPPC) showed potential for high efficiency and reduced emissions of NOx and Soot. However, because of the high octane number of gasoline, misfire and unstable combustion dramatically limit low load operating conditions. In previous work, seeding the intake of the engine with ozone showed potential for increasing the fuel reactivity of gasoline. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of ozone to overcome the low load limitations of a GCI engine. Experiments were performed in a single-cylinder light-duty CI engine fueled with 95 RON gasoline. Engine speed was set to 1500 rpm and intake pressure was set to 1 bar in order to investigate typical low load operating conditions. In the first part of the work, the effect of ozone on gasoline autoignition was investigate while the start of the fuel injection varied between 60 CAD and 24 CAD before TDC. Results showed that earlier injection timings improved the promoting effect of ozone on gasoline autoignition mainly because of the extension…
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Ozone Seeding Effect on the Ignition Event in HCCI Combustion of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

Université d'Orléans-Ida Truedsson, Christine Rousselle, Fabrice Foucher
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The transportation sector adds to the greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. One way to decrease this impact from transportation is by using renewable fuels. Ethanol is a readily available blend component which can be produced from bio blend­stock, currently used blended with gasoline from low to high concentrations. This study focuses on a high octane (RON=97) gasoline blended with 0, 20, and 50, volume % of ethanol, respectively. The high ethanol blended gasoline was used in a light duty engine originally designed for diesel combustion. Due to the high octane rating and high ignition resistance of the fuel it required high intake temperatures of 443 K and higher to achieve stable combustion in in homogeneously charged compression ignition (HCCI) combustion operation at low load. To enable combustion with lower intake temperatures more commonly used in commercial vehicles, ozone was injected with the intake air as an ignition improver. Experiments showed that the intake temperature could be significantly reduced and with ozone seeding at an engine speed of 1500 rpm and an equivalence ratio of 0.3 stable…
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Towards Stoichiometric Combustion in HCCI Engines: Effect of Ozone Seeding and Dilution

CNRS-Guillaume Dayma, Philippe Dagaut
Laboratoire Prisme-Pietro Matteo Pinazzi, Fabrice Foucher
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is generally considered as an efficient solution to reduce fuel consumption and meet the pollutant requirements of internal combustion engines. Furthermore, the HCCI combustion strategy delivers drastically reduced levels of NOx and particulate matter, and combined with a post treatment device, low levels of unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) can be achieved. However, affordable and widely used three-way catalytic converters require the engine to be run under stoichiometric conditions. Running an HCCI engine under an increased equivalence ratio leads to advanced combustion phasing and an excessive in-cylinder pressure rate that can affect engine operation. The dilution effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) represents a way to delay ignition of the mixture and reduce excessive in-cylinder pressure gradients. However, acting exclusively on dilution in order to control HCCI combustion is problematic and could lead to misfire or unstable combustion characteristics. Recent studies demonstrated that seeding the engine intake with oxidizing chemical species is a promising strategy to achieve combustion control in HCCI engines. Among many oxidizing chemical species, ozone…
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