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Foret-Bruno, J-Y.
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Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters

J-Y. Foret-Bruno, X. Trosseille, Y. Page, J-F Huère, J-Y. Le Coz, J-C Coltat
CEESAR-T. Phalempin, D. Villeforceix, P. Baudrit, H. Guillemot
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties.In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have…
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Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes with Occupant Restrained with Belt Load Limiter

CEESAR-T. Phalempin, D. Villeforceix, P. Dandres, C. Got
Lab Renault / PSA Peugeot-Citroën-J-Y. Foret-Bruno, X. Trosseille, J-Y. Le Coz
Published 1998-11-02 by SAE International in United States
In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that the greatest proportion of restrained occupants sustaining severe injuries and fatalities are involved in frontal impact (70% and 50% respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restraint occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the seat belt. In the seventies, a few cars were equipped in France with load limiters and it was thereby possible to observe a relationship between the force applied and the occupant's age with regard to this thoracic risk.The reduction of intrusion for the most violent frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic risks with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact violence. It is therefore essential to limit restraint forces with a seat belt to reduce the number of road casualties, especially for the most elderly.In order to address the thoracic risk in frontal impact, a restraint system combining belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension,…
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Belted or Not Belted: The Only Difference Between Two Matched Samples of 200 Car Occupants

Institute of Orthopaedical Research, Raymond Poincare Hospital (France)-C. Got, A. Patel
Laboratory of Physiology and Biomechanics, Peugeot-Renault Association (France)-F. Hartemann, C. Thomas, C. Henry, J-Y. Foret-Bruno, G. Faverjon, C. Tarrière
Published 1977-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This study aims at determining, with the maximum precision, the performance of the 3 point safety belt in different accident configurations, and more particularly in frontal collisions.For this purpose, two matched samples were taken from a file of 3000 accidents, analysed by a multidisciplinary study group. These samples of 100 front seat occupants wearing seat belts, and 100 not wearing seat belts were made up in such a manner that, for every belted occupant, corresponds an occupant not wearing a belt, the one and the other being in equivalent circumstances, using the following factors: Make and type of the vehicle Seat occupied Age (as far as possible) Direction of impact Violence of the impact (same class of ▵V and mean γ) Possible intrusion of passenger compartment Possible overload caused by a rear seat occupant Using this method of comparison, one can appreciate the effectiveness of the 3 point belt and explain the variations of effectiveness that appear in normal case studies.
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