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A Methodology for Monitoring Real-World CO2 Emissions Compliance in Passenger Vehicles

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Nikiforos Zacharof, Stylianos Doulgeris, Ioannis Myrsinias, Zisimos Toumasatos, Athanasios Dimaratos, Zissis Samaras
European Commission Joint Research-Georgios Fontaras
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0034
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The road transport CO2 emissions reduction scheme in the European Union foresees mandatory targets for passenger vehicles. However, several studies have shown that there is a divergence between official and real-world values that it could be up to 40% in the NEDC. The introduction of the WLTP was expected to curb this divergence, but it is uncertain whether it can fully address the problem. In order to address this issue, future legislation aims at monitoring on-road fuel consumption and subsequently CO2 emissions by utilizing on-board fuel consumption meters. The current study investigates a monitoring approach that obtains and normalizes on-road vehicle operation data and estimate CO2 emissions through vehicle simulation. The first step is to create the vehicle’s engine fuel consumption map, based on laboratory vehicle measurements in order to use it as reference data. Subsequently, a methodology is developed to produce the vehicle’s engine map from signals retrieved through the OBD port in order to emulate data availability under a monitoring scheme. The methodology to derive the vehicle’s engine fuel consumption map includes an…
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A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Coulomb Counting Method and Estimation of the Electrified-Vehicles Electricity Balance Over the WLTP

European Commission Joint Research-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0020
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The energy storage devices of electrified vehicles (Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles) are required to operate with highly dynamic current and power outputs, both for charging and discharging operation. When calculating the vehicle CO2 emissions and electrical energy consumption from a trip, the change in electrical energy content at vehicle-level has to be accounted for. This quantity, referred to as the electricity balance in the WLTP regulation, is normally obtained through a time-integration of the current or power supplied by the vehicle batteries during operation and the efficiency factor is often assumed to be unitary (as in the official type-approval procedure). The Joint Research Centre has collected experimental data from different electrified vehicles with regards to electrical energy use and battery State Of Charge (SOC) profile; the latter was used as a reference to quantify the actual vehicle electricity balance from a trip or driving cycle. In this work, the approach of using a simple Coulomb counting method with unitary efficiency for charging and discharging for the quantification of the vehicle electricity balance…
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An Experimental Methodology for Measuring Resistance Forces of Light-Duty Vehicles under Real-World Conditions and the Impact on Fuel Consumption

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Dimitrios Komnos, Leonidas Ntziachristos
European Commission Joint Research-Georgios Fontaras, Jelica Pavlovic, Biagio Ciuffo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0383
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A vital element of any vehicle-certification test is the use of representative values for the vehicle resistance forces. In most certification procedures, including the WLTP recently adopted by the EU, the latter is achieved mainly through coast down tests. Subsequently, the resistance values measured are used for setting up the chassis-dyno resistances applied during the laboratory measurements. These reference values are obtained under controlled conditions, while a series of corrections are applied to make the test procedure more repeatable and reproducible. In real driving, the actual vehicle road loads are influenced by a series of factors leading to a divergence between the certified fuel consumption values, and the real-world ones. An approach of calculating representative road loads during on-road tests can help to obtain a more unobstructed view of vehicle efficiency and, when needed, confirm the officially declared road loads. This approach is also essential for validating simulations and achieving better estimates of the actual fuel consumption, a requirement introduced by the new policy adopted in the EU. In this study, a series of on-road…
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Experimental evaluation and modeling of waste heat recovery in VECTO

Joint Research Centre-Stijn Broekaert, Theodoros Grigoratos, Georgios Fontaras
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1287
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Waste heat recovery based on an Organic Rankine Cycle is a technology proposed for the reduction of the fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles. This technology is currently not simulated by VECTO, the tool used in Europe to certify the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of new heavy-duty vehicles. In this work, a class 5 lorry equipped with a prototype Organic Rankine Cycle system is tested on the chassis dyno during steady state and multiple transient driving cycles, with waste heat recovery enabled and disabled. The waste heat recovery system enabled a brake specific fuel consumption reduction of up to 6.5% during steady-state conditions, up to 3.1% during the World Harmonized Vehicle Cycle and up to 2.1% during the regional delivery cycle. A model of the vehicle was created in VECTO based on the experimental data. The waste heat recovery system was modelled by creating a fuel consumption map with the combined power output of the engine and the waste heat recovery system during the steady state experiments. The regional delivery cycle was simulated in VECTO…
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Analysis of the Impact of the WLTP Procedure on CO2 Emissions of Passenger Cars

European Commission Joint Research-Biagio Ciuffo, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Giuseppe DiPierro, Federico Millo, Claudio Cubito
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Until 2017 in Europe the Type Approval (TA) procedure for light duty vehicles for the determination of pollutant emissions and fuel consumption was based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), a test cycle performed on a chassis dynamometer. However several studies highlighted significant discrepancies in terms of CO2 emissions between the TA test and the real world, due to the limited representativeness of the test procedure. Therefore, the European authorities decided to introduce a new, up-to date, test procedure capable to closer represent real world driving conditions, called Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP). This work aims to analyze the effects of the new WLTP on vehicle CO2 emissions through both experimental and simulation investigations on two different Euro 5 vehicles, a petrol and a diesel car, representatives of average European passenger cars. The study also considers the effect of the engine warm-up and the impact of the start-stop technology in this new TA scenario. Since the WLTP imposes higher test mass and Road Loads (RLs), as well as higher driving cycle dynamics,…
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An Integrated Experimental and Numerical Methodology for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle 0D Modelling

European Commission Joint Research-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras
FEV Italia-Mauro Scassa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0072
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Governments worldwide are taking actions aiming to achieve a sustainable transportation system that can comprise of minimal pollutant and GHG emissions. Particular attention is given to the real-world emissions, i.e. to the emissions achieved in the real driving conditions, outside of a controlled testing environment. In this framework, interest in vehicle fleet electrification is rapidly growing, as it is seen as a way to simultaneously reduce pollutant and GHG emissions, while on the other hand OEMs are facing a significant increase in the number of tests which are needed to calibrate this new generation of electrified powertrains over a variety of different driving scenarios. This paper introduces an integrated and standardized methodology for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) testing and modelling, which reduces the testing effort in terms of time and cost, and aims to provide a “virtual test rig” on which the performance of electrified powertrains can be assessed over a wide variety of different real driving scenarios. The experimental part is based on performing customized and non-invasive powertrain instrumentation. Vehicle tear-down is avoided for…
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A Generalized Component Efficiency and Input-Data Generation Model for Creating Fleet-Representative Vehicle Simulation Cases in VECTO

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Nikiforos Zacharof
European Commission Joint Research-Alessandro Tansini, Theodoros Grigoratos, Georgios Fontaras
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used for the official calculation and reporting of CO2 emissions of HDVs in Europe. It uses certified input data in the form of energy or torque loss maps of driveline components and engine fuel consumption maps. Such data are proprietary and are not disclosed. Any further analysis of the fleet performance and CO2 emissions evolution using VECTO would require generic inputs or reconstructing realistic component input data. The current study attempts to address this issue by developing a process that would create VECTO input files based as much as possible on publicly available data. The core of the process is a series of models that calculate the vehicle component efficiency maps and produce the necessary VECTO input data. The process was applied to generate vehicle input files for rigid trucks and tractor-trailers of HDV Classes 4, 5, 9 and 10. Subsequently, evaluating the accuracy of the process, the simulation results were compared with reference VECTO results supplied by various vehicle manufacturers. The results showed that the difference…
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Calculating Heavy-Duty Truck Energy and Fuel Consumption Using Correlation Formulas Derived From VECTO Simulations

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Nikiforos Zacharof
European Commission's Joint Research Centre-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool (VECTO) is used in Europe for calculating standardised energy consumption and CO2 emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks (HDTs) for certification purposes. The tool requires detailed vehicle technical specifications and a series of component efficiency maps, which are difficult to retrieve for those that are outside of the manufacturing industry. In the context of quantifying HDT CO2 emissions, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission received VECTO simulation data of the 2016 vehicle fleet from the vehicle manufacturers. In previous work, this simulation data has been normalised to compensate for differences and issues in the quality of the input data used to run the simulations. This work, which is a continuation of the previous exercise, focuses on the deeper meaning of the data received to understand the factors contributing to energy and fuel consumption. Fuel efficiency distributions and energy breakdown figures were derived from the data and are presented in this work. Correlation formulas were produced to calculate the energy loss contributions of individual components and resistances (air drag,…
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Estimating the CO2 Emissions Reduction Potential of Various Technologies in European Trucks Using VECTO Simulator

European Commission - DG CLIMA-Dimitrios Savvidis
European Commission Joint Research-Georgios Fontaras, Theodoros Grigoratos, Biagio Ciuffo
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) account for some 5% of the EU’s total greenhouse gas emissions. They present a variety of possible configurations that are deployed depending on the intended use. This variety makes the quantification of their CO2 emissions and fuel consumption difficult. For this reason, the European Commission has adopted a simulation-based approach for the certification of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of HDVs in Europe; the VECTO simulation software has been developed as the official tool for the purpose. The current study investigates the impact of various technologies on the CO2 emissions of European trucks through vehicle simulations performed in VECTO. The chosen vehicles represent average 2015 vehicles and comprised of two rigid trucks (Class 2 and 4) and a tractor-trailer (Class 5), which were simulated under their reference configurations and official driving cycles. The effects of aerodynamics, auxiliary systems, curb-weight, tyre rolling resistance, engine internal losses, and engine and gearbox efficiency were investigated. Factors exhibited a varying reduction potential that depended on the vehicle category and the driving cycle. Results indicate where focus…
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The Impact of WLTP on the Official Fuel Consumption and Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Europe

European Commission Joint Research Centre-Jelica Pavlovic, Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras, Biagio Ciuffo, Marcos Garcia Otura, Germana Trentadue, Ricardo Suarez Bertoa
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level. The discrepancy between official and real life figures of FC, electric range, and CO2 emissions has been often attributed, at least partly, to the inadequacy of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) to represent the real-world conditions of…
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