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Fatouraie, Mohammad
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Effects of Engine Speed on Spray Behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” Gasoline Injector

Robert Bosch LLC-Mohammad Fatouraie
University of Melbourne-Joshua Lacey, Michael Brear
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Non-reacting spray behaviors of the Engine Combustion Network “Spray G” gasoline fuel injector were investigated at flash and non-flash boiling conditions in an optically accessible single cylinder engine and a constant volume spray chamber. High-speed Mie-scattering imaging was used to determine transient liquid-phase spray penetration distances and observe general spray behaviors. The standardized “G2” and “G3” test conditions recommended by the Engine Combustion Network were matched in this work and the fuel was pure iso-octane. Results from the constant volume chamber represented the zero (stationary piston) engine speed condition and single cylinder engine speeds ranged from 300 to 2,000 RPM. As expected, the present results indicated the general spray behaviors differed significantly between the spray chamber and engine. The differences must be thoughtfully considered when applying spray chamber results to guide spray model development for engine applications. Overall, increases in engine speed correlated well with enhanced vaporization, loss of distinct plume structure, and enhanced spray collapse which led to reductions in wetted-footprint area. Furthermore, while loss of distinct plume structures appeared to be strongly dependent…
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Investigation of the Impact of Fuel Properties on Particulate Number Emission of a Modern Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

General Motors LLC-Elana Chapman, Sharon Li
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Robert McCormick, Gina Fioroni
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) has become the preferred technology for spark-ignition engines resulting in greater specific power output and lower fuel consumption, and consequently reduction in CO2 emission. However, GDI engines face a substantial challenge in meeting new and future emission limits, especially the stringent particle number (PN) emissions recently introduced in Europe and China. Studies have shown that the fuel used by a vehicle has a significant impact on engine out emissions. In this study, nine fuels with varying chemical composition and physical properties were tested on a modern turbo-charged side-mounted GDI engine with design changes to reduce particulate emissions. The fuels tested included four fuels meeting US certification requirements; two fuels meeting European certification requirements; and one fuel meeting China 6 certification requirements being proposed at the time of this work. Two risk safeguard fuels (RSG), representing the properties of worst case market fuels in Europe and China, were also included. The particle number concentration of the solid particulates was measured in the engine-out exhaust flow at steady state engine operations with load…
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High-Speed Imaging Studies of Gasoline Fuel Sprays at Fuel Injection Pressures from 300 to 1500 bar

Robert Bosch LLC-Mohammad Fatouraie
University of Michigan-Mario Medina, Margaret Wooldridge
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
High-pressure gasoline fuel injection is a means to improve combustion efficiency and lower engine-out emissions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of fuel injection pressure on transient gasoline fuel spray development for a wide range of injection pressures, including over 1000 bar, using a constant volume chamber and high-speed imaging. Reference grade gasoline was injected at fuel pressures of 300, 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 bar into the chamber, which was pressurized with nitrogen at 1, 5, 10, and 20 bar at room temperature (298 K). Bulk spray imaging data were used to quantify spray tip penetration distance, rate of spray tip penetration and spray cone angle. Near-nozzle data were used to evaluate the early spray development.The bulk characteristics of the high pressure gasoline sprays were consistent with trends previously observed at lower fuel injection pressures, e.g. spray tip penetration distance increased with increased fuel injection pressure after the spray break-up time and sprays with higher cone angles were produced with increasing chamber pressure at constant fuel injection pressure. The spray break-up time was a…
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Effects of Fuel Injection Events of Ethanol and Gasoline Blends on Boosted Direct-Injection Engine Performance

University of Michigan-Ripudaman Singh, Travis Burch, George Lavoie, Margaret Wooldridge, Mohammad Fatouraie
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of ethanol in increasing the thermal efficiency of gasoline-fueled spark ignition engines via the higher enthalpy of vaporization and higher knock resistance of ethanol compared with gasoline. This study expands on previous work by considering a split fuel injection strategy with a boosted direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with E0 (100% by volume reference grade gasoline; with research octane number = 91 and motor octane number = 83), E100 (100% by volume anhydrous ethanol), and various splash-blends of the two fuels. Experiments were performed using a production 3-cylinder Ford Ecoboost engine where two cylinders were de-activated to create a single-cylinder engine with a displacement of 0.33 L. The engine was operated over a range of loads with boosted intake manifold absolute pressure (MAP) from 1 bar to 1.5 bar. The fuel injection timing of single fuel injection events was varied at MAP = 1 bar using different blend ratios (E0, E30, E50, E85 and E100) to identify the range of injection timing corresponding to maximum thermal efficiency for…
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Highly Turbocharged Gasoline Engine and Rapid Compression Machine Studies of Super-Knock

SAE International Journal of Engines

Chery Automobile Co., Ltd.-Zhichao Jia, Mengke Wang
Tsinghua University-Hui Liu, Zhi Wang, Yunliang Qi, Xin He, Jian-Xin Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0686
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Super-knock has been a significant obstacle for the development of highly turbocharged (downsized) gasoline engines with spark ignition, due to the catastrophic damage super-knock can cause to the engine. According to previous research by the authors, one combustion process leading to super-knock may be described as hot-spot induced pre-ignition followed by deflagration which can induce detonation from another hot spot followed by high pressure oscillation. The sources of the hot spots which lead to pre-ignition (including oil films, deposits, gas-dynamics, etc.) may occur sporadically, which leads to super-knock occurring randomly at practical engine operating conditions. In this study, a spark plasma was used to induce preignition and the correlation between super-knock combustion and the thermodynamic state of the reactant mixture was investigated in a four-cylinder production gasoline engine. The engine experiments were complemented by rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments of iso-octane and air which also used a spark plasma to investigate the fundamental physical and chemical mechanisms of super-knock. For the engine experiments, at low-speed high-load conditions, early spark timing was used to systematically induce…
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In-Cylinder Particulate Matter and Spray Imaging of Ethanol/Gasoline Blends in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Co.-Steven Wooldridge
University of Michigan-Mohammad Fatouraie, Margaret Wooldridge
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0259
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A single-cylinder Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine with optical access was used to investigate the effects of ethanol/gasoline blends on in-cylinder formation of particulate matter (PM) and fuel spray characteristics. Indolene was used as a baseline fuel and two blends of 50% and 85% ethanol (by volume, balance indolene) were investigated. Time resolved thermal radiation (incandescence/natural luminosity) of soot particles and fuel spray characteristics were recorded using a high speed camera. The images were analyzed to quantify soot formation in units of relative image intensity as a function of important engine operating conditions, including ethanol concentration in the fuel, fuel injection timing (250, 300 and 320° bTDC), and coolant temperature (25°C and 90°C). Spatially-integrated incandescence was used as a metric to quantify the level of in-cylinder PM formed at the different operating conditions. The experiments were conducted at stoichiometric conditions, fixed engine speed of 1500 RPM, a load condition of approximately 5.5 bar IMEPⁿ, with a fixed intake manifold absolute pressure of 76 kPa. Significant reduction in in-cylinder soot formation was observed with the…
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A Comparative Study of the Ignition and Combustion Properties of Ethanol-Indolene Blends During HCCI Operation of a Single Cylinder Engine

Univ of Michigan-Margaret Wooldridge
Univ. of Michigan-Mohammad Fatouraie, Peter Keros
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study has been conducted to investigate the effects of indolene-ethanol blends on engine performance during homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation of single-cylinder engine. The engine performance and HCCI stability were investigated and the high enthalpy of vaporization of ethanol resulted in significant intake charge cooling and limited the stable HCCI operation to higher intake temperatures. In the second part of the study, intake air preheat temperature was used to compensate for some of the thermal effects introduced by the fuel blends. The effects of equivalence ratio at a same end of compression temperature for different fuel blends showed that increasing the ethanol content of the fuel blend can extend the stable HCCI lean operating limit. Engine performance was characterized by in-cylinder pressure data, heat release rate, indicated mean effective pressure and exhaust gas emissions (NO and HC). Only the performance of E10 (10% ethanol/90% indolene by volume) blends were comparable to neat indolene. A model for estimating the HCCI ignition delay time, based on iso-octane ignition characteristics, was developed to interpret the…
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