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Determination of Heavy Truck Noise Sources under Actual Highway Operating Conditions Using Acoustic Beamforming

Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc.-Paul R. Donavan, Carrie Janello
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Acoustic beamforming was used to localize noise sources on heavy trucks operating on highways in California and North Carolina at a total of 20 sites. Over 1,200 trucks were measured under a variety of operating conditions, including cruise on level highways, on upgrades, down degrades, low speed acceleration, and for various speeds and pavements. The contours produced by the beamforming measurements were used to identify specific source contributions under these conditions and for a variety of heavy trucks. Consistently, the highest noise levels were seen at the tire-pavement interface, with lesser additional noise radiated from the engine compartment. Noise from elevated exhaust stacks was only documented for less than 5% of the trucks measured. The results were further reduced to produce vertical profiles of noise levels versus height above the roadway. The profiles were normalized to the highest noise level at ground level. The profile averages from each measurement site were found to be independent of speed and operating conditions and were consistent from site-to-site. The highest levels were also related to the tire-pavement noise…
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Comparison of Vehicle Responses to Rumble Strip Inputs of Varying Design

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

California Department of Transportation-Bruce Rymer
Illingworth & Rodkin Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2274
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A measurement program was completed to assess driver input versus exterior noise generation for four vehicle designs and two different rumble strip designs. The vehicles included a small compact car, an immediate size car, a full sport utility vehicle, and a medium duty dump truck. The first rumble strip was a conventional design providing shorter wavelength input to the tire. The second was designed to provide longer wavelength, more harmonic input to the tire. The measurements included exterior pass-by noise and on-board exterior noise and interior measurements of sound pressure level and vibration level at the seat track and steering column. In general, the results indicated that the longer wavelength strips produced less overall A-weighted pass-by noise with little or no reduction in interior noise and vibration. Considerable variation in the response of the vehicles was found particularly for steering column vibration and interior noise where the overall differences ranged from about 9 to 17 decibels (dB). The exterior measures produced smaller ranges, from 2 to about 7½ dB; however, the rank ordering of vehicle…
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Parameters Affecting the Noise Performance of ASTM Standard Reference Test Tires

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Illingworth & Rodkin Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
Lodico Acoustics, LLC-Dana Lodico
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1910
Published 2013-05-13 by SAE International in United States
Currently, the ASTM P225/60R 97S Radial Standard Reference Test Tire (SRTT) is used as a control test tire for calibrating test track surfaces over time and for rank ordering the noise performance of different pavement designs. As a result, variation from one SRTT to another and the effects of tire aging are important to quantify. Measurements of tire noise sound intensity on eight asphalt and two concrete test sections were conducted for eleven new and six older SRTT tires. The range in level for the new tires on each of the ten pavements was determined and was found to be 1.1 dB when averaged over all pavements compared to 0.7 dB for a single tire tested multiple times. As a group, the older tires produced levels 0.5 dB higher than the new tires when averaged for all pavements. The older tires had higher tread rubber durometer hardness values than the new tires, however, within the old and new groupings, no consistent trends could be identified. After nine months, the original 11 new tires were retested…
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Investigations of the Influence of Lower Frequency Aerodynamic Noise on Interior Cruise and Exterior Pass-By Sound Levels

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Illingworth & Rodkin Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1554
Published 2012-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The results of a series of tests were performed that are used to investigate the contribution of aerodynamic noise to lower frequency passenger car interior and exterior cruise noise levels. Wind tunnel measurements were used to isolate aerodynamic noise from tire-pavement and engine noise and to indicate that the vehicle underbody is a significant source region for both interior and exterior noise. Comparing interior on-road measurements to the wind tunnel results, it was found that aerodynamic noise was slightly less than an equal contributor to cruise noise averaging 4.8 dB lower than the road levels between 50 and 400 Hz at a speed of 80 km/h. At 140 km/h, the difference dropped to 2.3 dB indicating that the aerodynamic noise was the major contributor. For exterior pass-by, aerodynamic noise levels were found to account for almost all of the noise measured during coast-by conditions in the frequency range from 50 to 400 Hz at 97 km/h. This finding was substantiated by additional pass-by testing using different tires on a variety of pavements. It was further…
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Challenges for Tire Noise Evaluation on Common Pavements

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

General Motors Company-Alan Parrett, Dave Nielubowicz, Jinshuo Zhu
Illingworth & Rodkin Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1582
Published 2011-05-17 by SAE International in United States
Developing common methods of noise evaluation and facilities can present a number of challenges in the area of tire/pavement noise. Some of the issues involved include the design and construction of pavements globally, the change in pavement over time, and variation in the noise produced with standard test tires used as references. To help understand and address these issues for airborne tire/pavement noise, acoustic intensity measurement methods based on the On-board Sound Intensity (OBSI) technique have been used. Initial evaluations have included measurements conducted at several different proving grounds. Also included were measurements taken on a 3m diameter tire noise dynamometer with surfaces replicating test track pavements. Variation between facilities appears to be a function of both design/construction and pavement age. Consistent with trends in the literature, for smooth asphalt surfaces, the newest surface produced levels lower than older surfaces. For more aggressive, exposed aggregate concrete surfaces, the levels produced appear to depend more on the roughness built into the surface rather than aging effects. The tire noise dynamometer produced overall levels slightly higher than…
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Contributors to Lower Frequency Pass-by Noise Levels under Cruise Conditions

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Illingworth & Rodkin Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1613
Published 2011-05-17 by SAE International in United States
With increasing use of the constant speed pass-by conditions to capture the noise generated by this portion of the vehicle operating cycle, knowledge of the contributing sources of noise was become increasingly important. For frequencies above 400 Hz, the noise is dominated by tire/pavement noise as can be demonstrated by comparing on-board sound intensity (OBSI) measurements to constant speed pass-by noise levels. At lower frequencies, direct on-board measurements become more difficult as the tire/pavement noise source strength decreases with decreasing frequency and microphone induced wind noise increases. To investigate the contribution of sources at these lower frequencies, cruise and coast pass-by measurements were made for a number of different pavement types and two different tire designs at test speeds of 56, 72, and 97 km/h over a frequency range from 50 to 10,000 Hz. OBSI measurements were also conducted for these same conditions. From the pass-by measurements, powertrain noise was separated from “rolling” noise by comparing cruise and coast operation. For coast conditions, the noise levels below 400 Hz were found not to depend on…
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Localization of Truck Noise Sources under Passby Conditions Using Acoustic Beamforming Methods

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Caltrans-Bruce Rymer
Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-2232
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
Acoustic beamforming was used to visualize the sound radiation of trucks under test track passby and actual highway operating conditions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain an understanding of which sources contribute to the overall passby noise level and to determine the vertical distribution of noise sources. For trucks, drive axle tires were found to be the major contributor to passby noise at highway speeds, followed by powertrain noise to a much less degree, and very occasionally, exhaust stack outlet noise. For medium and heavy trucks, the acoustic mean source height was found to be about 0.5m and about 0.3m for light vehicles.
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Use of the ASTM Standard Reference Test Tire as a Benchmark for On-Board Tire/Pavement Noise Measurement

Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc-Paul R. Donavan
Published 2009-05-19 by SAE International in United States
There is a growing interest in using a standard reference tire for both assessing changes in test track pavement over time and rank ordering of the performance of different highway pavements. Because of longer-term availability, the ASTM Standard Reference Test Tire (SRTT) is the primary candidate for these applications. Issues of concern for the SRTT include tire-to-tire variation, the relation of the SRTT to other tires currently in use, and the “break-in” period required for stable test tires. To address tire-to-tire variability, seven SRTT’s were tested on variety of asphalt concrete (AC) and Portland cement concrete (PCC) surfaces on two occasions. These included five new tires and two that had been in use for some time. Two of the new tires were re-tested with increasing use to examine any break-in period effect. For comparison to other tires currently in use, on-board sound intensity (OBSI) and controlled pass-by measurements were conducted with the SRTT and compared to pass-by levels measured for light vehicles operating on actual highways. To further evaluate the SRTT for use as a…
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The Influence of Truck Tire Type and Pavement on the Emission of Noise from Trucks under Highway Operating Conditions

Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
Published 2007-05-15 by SAE International in United States
Typically, the noise emission from trucks under highway cruise conditions is not reduced as much as it is for light vehicles when quieter pavements are used. Potential reasons for this are that other noise sources beside tire/pavement noise are more significant for trucks than light vehicles and/or the effect of pavement on truck tire noise generation is different than it is for light vehicle. As the cruising passby noise levels of trucks are about 10 dB greater than for light vehicles, this becomes an important issue for highway noise abatement when trucks make up even a relatively small percentage of the traffic flow. To investigate this issue, beam forming and conventional passby testing methods were used to investigate the contribution of both tire/pavement noise and the other noise sources for common types of heavy trucks. To isolate the tire/pavement effects, the onboard sound intensity (OBSI) measurements were made on a variety of asphalt surfaces using a passenger car tire and seven different truck tire designs. The results from both of these studies suggest that while…
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The Effect of Pavement Type on Low Speed Light Vehicle Noise Emission

Illingworth & Rodkin, Inc.-Paul R. Donavan
Published 2005-05-16 by SAE International in United States
At speeds of 50 km/h or greater, the exterior noise emission of light vehicles is typically dominated by tire/pavement noise for operating conditions of cruise and moderate acceleration. At a test speed of 56 km/h, it has been found that pavement type can create a 10 dB or more variation in tire/pavement noise. This has significant implications for both community noise and vehicle noise emission testing. In this paper, the results of tire/pavement noise measurements for over 80 different pavements in Europe and the United States are reported. These pavements include research surfaces, existing roadways, and ISO 10844 passby test surfaces. Measurements were conducted using an on-board sound intensity methodology that has been correlated to cruise-by noise levels. These results are discussed in terms of the revisions being considered for the ISO 362 passby test procedure and the ISO 10844 test surface specification. Additionally, a case history of community traffic noise reduction achieved by use of a quieter pavement is reviewed to demonstrate the importance of the pavement in low speed vehicle noise emissions
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