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Das Adhikary, Bishwadipa
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Computational Investigation of Low Load Operation in a Light-Duty Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition [GDICI] Engine Using Single-Injection Strategy

Argonne National Lab.-Stephen Ciatti, Christopher Kolodziej
Univ. of Wisconsin-Bishwadipa Das Adhikary, Rolf D. Reitz
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The use of gasoline in a compression ignition engine has been a research focus lately due to the ability of gasoline to provide more premixing, resulting in controlled emissions of the nitrogen oxides [NOx] and particulate matter. The present study assesses the reactivity of 93 RON [87AKI] gasoline in a GM 1.9L 4-cylinder diesel engine, to extend the low load limit. A single injection strategy was used in available experiments where the injection timing was varied from −42 to −9 deg ATDC, with a step-size of 3 deg. The minimum fueling level was defined in the experiments such that the coefficient of variance [COV] of indicated mean effective pressure [IMEP] was less than 3%. The study revealed that injection at −27 deg ATDC allowed a minimum load of 2 bar BMEP. Also, advancement in the start of injection [SOI] timing in the experiments caused an earlier CA50, which became retarded with further advancement in SOI timing. To help explain these behaviors, simulations were carried out using the KIVA3V CFD code coupled with a Jacobian chemistry…
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Improved Chemical Kinetics Numerics for the Efficient Simulation of Advanced Combustion Strategies

SAE International Journal of Engines

University of Wisconsin-Federico Perini, Bishwadipa Das Adhikary, Jae Hyung Lim, Xingyuan Su, Youngchul Ra, Hu Wang, Rolf D. Reitz
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1113
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The incorporation of detailed chemistry models in internal combustion engine simulations is becoming mandatory as local, globally lean, low-temperature combustion strategies are setting the path towards a more efficient and environmentally sustainable use of energy resources in transportation. In this paper, we assessed the computational efficiency of a recently developed sparse analytical Jacobian chemistry solver, namely ‘SpeedCHEM’, that features both direct and Krylov-subspace solution methods for maximum efficiency for both small and large mechanism sizes. The code was coupled with a high-dimensional clustering algorithm for grouping homogeneous reactors into clusters with similar states and reactivities, to speed-up the chemical kinetics solution in multi-dimensional combustion simulations. The methodology was validated within the KIVA-ERC code, and the computational efficiency of both methods was evaluated for different, challenging engine combustion modeling cases, including dual fuel, dual direct-injection and low-load, multiple-injection RCCI, direct injection gasoline compression ignition (GDICI), and HCCI engine operation using semi-detailed chemistry representations. Reaction mechanisms of practical applicability in internal combustion engine CFD simulations were used, ranging from about 50 up to about 200 species. Computational…
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Extension of the Lower Load Limit of Gasoline Compression Ignition with 87 AKI Gasoline by Injection Timing and Pressure

Argonne National Lab.-Christopher P. Kolodziej, Stephen Ciatti
Univ. of California-David Vuilleumier
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Previous work has demonstrated the capabilities of gasoline compression ignition to achieve engine loads as high as 19.5 bar BMEP with a production multi-cylinder diesel engine using gasoline with an anti-knock index (AKI) of 87. In the current study, the low load limit of the engine was investigated using the same engine hardware configurations and 87 AKI fuel that was used to achieve 19.5 bar BMEP. Single injection, “minimum fueling” style injection timing and injection pressure sweeps (where fuel injection quantity was reduced at each engine operating condition until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure rose to 3%) found that the 87 AKI test fuel could run under stable combustion conditions down to a load of 1.5 bar BMEP at an injection timing of −30 degrees after top dead center (°aTDC) with reduced injection pressure, but still without the use of intake air heating or uncooled EGR. A 0.4% concentration (by volume) of 2-Ethylhexyl Nitrate (EHN) was added to the 87 AKI test fuel to test the effects of increased reactivity on…
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Efficiency and Emissions performance of Multizone Stratified Compression Ignition Using Different Octane Fuels

Argonne National Laboratory-Stephen Ciatti, Michael Johnson
Columbia University-Aaron Knock
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Advanced combustion systems that simultaneously address PM and NOx while retaining the high efficiency of modern diesel engines, are being developed around the globe. One of the most difficult problems in the area of advanced combustion technology development is the control of combustion initiation and retaining power density. During the past several years, significant progress has been accomplished in reducing emissions of NOx and PM through strategies such as LTC/HCCI/PCCI/PPCI and other advanced combustion processes; however control of ignition and improving power density has suffered to some degree - advanced combustion engines tend to be limited to the 10 bar BMEP range and under.Experimental investigations have been carried out on a light-duty DI multi-cylinder diesel automotive engine. The engine is operated in low temperature combustion (LTC) mode using 93 RON (Research Octane Number) and 74 RON fuel. The presented approach uses multiple injections of low cetane (gasoline-like) fuels in a Multizone, Stratified Compression Ignition (MSCI) approach in an effort to improve control of combustion phasing and increase the engine load such that the practicality of…
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Study of In-Cylinder Combustion and Multi-Cylinder Light Duty Compression Ignition Engine Performance Using Different RON Fuels at Light Load Conditions

Argonne National Laboratory-Stephen Ciatti
Univ of Wisconsin-Madison-Rolf D. Reitz
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The effects of different Research Octane Number [RON] fuels on a multi-cylinder light-duty compression ignition [CI] engine were investigated at light load conditions. Experiments were conducted on a GM 1.9L 4-cylinder diesel engine at Argonne National Laboratory, using two different fuels, i.e., 75 RON and 93 RON.Emphasis was placed on 5 bar BMEP load, 2000 rev/min engine operation using two different RON fuels, and 2 bar BMEP load operating at 1500 rev/min using 75 RON gasoline fuel. The experiments reveal difficulty in controlling combustion at low load points using the higher RON fuel. In order to explain the experimental trends, simulations were carried out using the KIVA3V-Chemkin Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] Code. The numerical results were validated with the experimental results and provided insights about the engine combustion characteristics at different speeds and low load conditions using different fuels. It was observed that cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder variability issues complicate the multi-cylinder engine operation to a significant extent. Effective compression ratios [CR] of all 4 cylinders were found to be different, which indicates the variability in…
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Numerical Optimization of a Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled With Low-Octane Gasoline

Bishwadipa Das Adhikary
Argonne National Laboratory-Stephen Ciatti
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
In automotive industry it has been a challenge to retain diesel-like thermal efficiency while maintaining low emissions. Numerous studies have shown significant progress in achieving low emissions through the introduction of common-rail injection systems, multiple injections and exhaust gas recirculation and by using a high octane number fuel, like gasoline, to achieve adequate premixing. On the other hand, low temperature combustion strategies, like HCCI and PCCI, have also shown promising results in terms of reducing both NOx and soot emissions simultaneously. With the increasing capacity of computers, multi-dimensional CFD engine modeling enables a reasonably good prediction of combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions, which is the motivation behind the present research. The current research effort presents an optimization study of light-duty compression ignition engine performance, while meeting the emission regulation targets. A numerical optimization study was carried out on a light-duty, single-cylinder, compression ignition engine, fueled with a PRF87 gasoline surrogate, at a full load operating condition. The simulations were performed using a Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII) code coupled to a multi-dimensional CFD code,…
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