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Cracknell, Roger F.
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Engine Cleanliness in an Industry Standard Mercedes-Benz M111 Bench Engine: Effects of Inlet Valve Deposits on Combustion

Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH-Fabian Volkmer
Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc.-Andreas F. G. Glawar
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Port fuel injected (PFI) technology remains the most common fuel delivery type present in the marketplace for gasoline spark ignition engines and a legacy vehicle fleet featuring PFI technology will remain in the market for decades to come. This is especially the case in parts of Asia where PFI technology is still prominent, although direct injection (DI) technology adoption is starting to catch up.PFI engines can, when operated with lower quality fuels and lubricants, build up performance impairing deposits on a range of critical engine parts including in the fuel injectors, combustion chamber and on inlet valves. Inlet valve deposits (IVDs) in more severe cases have been associated with drivability issues such as engine stumble and engine hesitation on sudden acceleration. Deposit control additives in gasoline formulations are a well-established route to managing and even reversing fuel system fouling.This study, involving an industry standard, Mercedes-Benz M-111 PFI bench engine heavily augmented with measurement equipment, was able to obtain a deeper understanding of the negative impacts of IVDs on engine performance and efficiency. By using a…
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Modelling a Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Concept

Concawe-Roger F. Cracknell, Javier Ariztegui, Thomas Dubois, Heather Hamje, Leonardo Pellegrini, David Rickeard, Kenneth D. Rose
FEV GmbH-Karl Alexander Heufer, Hans Rohs
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Future engines and vehicles will be required to reduce both regulated and CO2 emissions. To achieve this performance, they will be configured with advanced hardware and engine control technology that will enable their operation on a broader range of fuel properties than today.Previous work has shown that an advanced compression ignition bench engine can operate successfully on a European market gasoline over a range of speed/load conditions while achieving diesel-like engine efficiency and acceptable regulated emissions and noise levels. Stable Gasoline CI (GCI) combustion using a European market gasoline was achieved at high to medium engine loads but combustion at lower loads was very sensitive to EGR rates, leading to longer ignition delays and a steep cylinder pressure rise. In general, the simultaneous optimisation of engine-out emissions and combustion noise was a considerable challenge and the engine could not be operated successfully at lower load conditions without an unrealistic amount of boost pressure.To identify ways to improve the lower load performance of a GCI engine concept, Computational Fluid Dynamics and KIVA simulations have now been…
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A new method to simulate the octane appetite of any spark ignition engine.

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Trevor J. Davies, Roger F. Cracknell, Bob Head
University of Bath-Kathryn Hobbs, Timothy Riley
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
The octane appetite of an SI engine can be expressed in terms of an Octane Index: OI = (1−K) RON + K MON where K is a constant for a given operating condition and depends only on the pressure and temperature variation in the engine (it is not a property of the fuel).Experimental measurements of K values can be costly and time consuming. This paper reports the development of a new K-value simulation method that can be applied to any spark ignition engine given basic engine data. Good agreement between simulation and experimental results suggests the method is reliable and can be applied to a wide range of engines.
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Simulating Combustion of Practical Fuels and Blends for Modern Engine Applications Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics

Reaction Engineering Solutions Ltd-Amit Bhave
Reaction Engineering Solutions Ltd.-Andrew John Smallbone
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
This research describes the potential to adopt detailed chemical kinetics for practical and potential future fuels using tri-component surrogate mixtures capable of simulating fuel octane “sensitivity” . Since the combustion characteristics of modern fuels are routinely measured using the RON and MON of the fuel, a methodology to generate detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for these fuels based on these data is presented. Firstly, a novel correlation between various tri-component blends (comprised of i-octane, n-heptane and toluene) and fuel RON and MON was obtained by carrying out standard octane tests. Secondly, a chemical kinetic mechanism for tri-component fuels was validated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) suite, an in-cylinder engine combustion simulator, and a series of engine experiments conducted in HCCI operating mode. Thirdly, the methodology was applied to predict combustion characteristics of a practical gasoline and fuel blends with ethanol and di-iso-butylene blends using detailed chemical kinetics. Finally, for the first time the application of this technique was demonstrated by employing detailed chemistry in the optimization of two engines and two fuels operating in HCCI…
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Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 1: Impact of Engine Hardware on HCCI Combustion

CONCAWE-Kenneth D. Rose
Consultant, Fuels and Environment-David J. Rickeard
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
Two single-cylinder diesel engines were optimised for advanced combustion performance by means of practical and cumulative hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 5 and 6 emissions limits and beyond. These enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, increased swirl, and a fixed combustion phasing, providing low engine-out emissions of NOx and PM with engine efficiencies equivalent to today's diesel engines. These combustion conditions approach those of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), especially at the lower part-load operating points.Four fuels exhibiting a range of ignition quality, volatility, and aromatics contents were used to evaluate the performance of these hardware enhancements on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels.
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Advanced Combustion for Low Emissions and High Efficiency Part 2: Impact of Fuel Properties on HCCI Combustion

CONCAWE-Kenneth D. Rose
Consultant, Fuels and Environment-David J. Rickeard
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
A broad range of diesel, kerosene, and gasoline-like fuels has been tested in a single-cylinder diesel engine optimized for advanced combustion performance. These fuels were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions, performance, and noise levels. Low-level biofuel blends, both biodiesel (FAME) and ethanol, were included in the fuel set in order to test for short-term advantages or disadvantages.The diesel engine optimized in Part 1 of this study included cumulative engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under conditions of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), at least over some portions of the speed and load map.
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Effect of Sulphur and Silicon in Fuels on an Automotive Reforming Catalyst

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Roger F. Cracknell
Shell Global Solutions International BV-Eric Vos, Gert Jan Kramer
Published 2005-05-11 by SAE International in United States
The effect of sulphur on a rhodium reformer catalyst was determined in the partial oxidation of n-heptane. The yield loss of the catalyst upon sulphur addition appeared to almost instantaneous and not progressive in time (i.e. it reaches a plateau). Up to ppm levels, the direct yield loss appeared to be linearly related to the sulphur level in the fuel and is of the order of around 3% per ppm of sulphur in the fuel.Sulphur adsorption on rhodium catalyst sites was found to be reversible. The original activity of the catalyst was quickly restored when changing to a sulphur free fuel. The effect of sulphur on the rhodium catalyst does not depend on the structure of the sulphur species.Based on this work, a 10 ppm sulphur maximum seems to be a sufficiently tight specification with respect to the stability of an appropriate reformer catalyst. By contrast, the presence of other species in fuels can cause irreversible and progressive catalyst deterioration.This work provides extra confirmation that Gas-to-Liquid fuels appear to be an excellent choice for combined…
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Designing Fuels Compatible with Reformers and Internal Combustion Engines

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Roger F. Cracknell
Shell Global Solutions International BV-Gert Jan Kramer, Eric Vos
Published 2004-06-08 by SAE International in United States
Because reformer technology can be used in conjunction with advanced internal combustion engine technology, it is important to be able to formulate fuels that are compatible with both reformers and ICEsIt has been found that most hydrocarbon species typically present in gasoline can be reformed with relative ease. The exception is that olefinic species of carbon number 6 and above are relatively much harder to reform. It is shown how a reformer compatible gasoline fuel with high octane can be blended.For Diesel fuels, synthetic ‘Gas to Liquid’ fuels are generally less susceptible to coking and hence superior to petroleum-derived fuels, for use with an onboard reformer.
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