Your Selections

Cloudt, Robert
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Diagnostics Development for Cost-Effective Temperature Sensor based Particulate Matter OBD Method

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Bosal Emission Control Systems-Robert Cloudt
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1550
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
A particulate matter On-Board Diagnostics method based on temperature sensing is demonstrated. The concept applies a detection filter downstream of the main particulate filter and a flow diversion pipe. A small fraction of the main exhaust flow is diverted through the detection filter. In case the main soot filter has some leakage, soot will collect on the detection filter where it reduces the filter's permeability. As a result the diverted flow is reduced. This effect is sensed by a temperature sensor placed downstream of the detection filter because the change of diverted mass flow results in a change of heating rate. This principle allows particulate filter diagnostics based on cost-effective and readily available sensing technology.Comprehensive diagnostics software is developed to interpret and assess the temperature signal. The developed diagnostics software detects particulate filter filtration inefficiency and performs plausibility checks. The concept is demonstrated using an instrumented test vehicle with purposely damaged particulate filter. The diagnostics prove successful in detecting a filtration inefficiency fault that leads to particulate matter emissions close to the 12 mg/km 2017…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Integrated Emission Management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

SAE International Journal of Engines

TNO Automotive-Robert Cloudt, Frank Willems
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1310
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Following a model-based approach, Integrated Emission Management offers a framework for future control strategy development. This approach alleviates calibration complexity, since it allows to make optimal trade-offs in an operational cost sense.The potential of the presented cost-optimal control strategy is demonstrated for a modern heavy-duty Euro VI engine. The studied diesel engine is equipped with cooled EGR, Variable Geometry Turbocharger, and a DPF-SCR aftertreatment system. A simulation study shows that the proposed Integrated Emission Management strategy accomplishes 2% to 3% reduction in fuel consumption and operating costs compared to a baseline strategy. Further potential benefits include reduced heat rejection associated with the EGR system and reduced DPF regeneration frequency.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Virtual Exhaust Line for Model-based Diesel Aftertreatment Development

TNO Automotive-Robert Cloudt, Jan Saenen, Edwin van den Eijnden, Chepa Rojer
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
A virtual diesel aftertreatment exhaust line is presented comprising DOC, DPF, SCR models and a unique Ammonia Oxidation catalyst model. All models are one dimensional models based on first principles. These models offer an attractive compromise between speed, accuracy and complexity for a variety of model applications: off-line simulation, control strategy development, Hardware in the Loop applications and model-based calibration. The implemented models are fast and suitable for real-time applications. Use of these virtual exhaust line models in a product development process has the potential of saving time and resources. The aftertreatment models are fitted based on specifically designed engine dynamometer experiments, which can be performed in a limited time frame. The effective test time required on a validated test setup is estimated on the order of 12 days in total. Specifically developed software tools facilitate the model fit process. These dedicated fit tools autonomously find parameter estimates for all the aftertreatment models. Isolated catalyst models and the complete virtual exhaust line show good correlation to measurements from a heavy-duty test setup. This work has…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Meeting Future Emission Legislation With Advanced Diesel SCR Control Systems

TNO Automotive-Robert Cloudt, Edwin van den Eijnden, Peter van der Heijden
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-08-0106
Published 2009-05-20 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Global emission legislation becomes more stringent and requires drastic reduction of NOx emission. Future legislation has a focus on real-world, in-use emissions. Calibrating urea SCR systems has become complex and time consuming. A model-based approach is presented which cuts development time and costs. A phenomenological SCR model fitted on engine dyno experiments is used for off-line simulation and on-line urea dosing control. A control strategy which incorporates the real-time model of NH3 storage control is demonstrated to accomplish good NOx conversion and low NH3 slip. The addition of a feedback sensor allows correction for system deviations in a closed-loop manner.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Cost and Fuel Efficient SCR-only Solution for Post-2010 HD Emission Standards

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

TNO Automotive-Robert Cloudt, Frank Willems, Peter van der Heijden
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0915
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment comprising a standard and a close-coupled SCR catalyst offers a feasible emission solution, especially suited for EURO VI.In this paper, results of a simulation study are presented. This study concentrates on optimizing SCR deNOx performance. Simulation results of cold start FTP and WHTC test cycles are presented to demonstrate the potential of the close-coupled SCR concept. Comparison with measured engine out emissions of an EGR engine shows that a close-coupled SCR catalyst potentially has NOx reduction performance as good as EGR. Practical issues regarding the use of an SCR catalyst in close-coupled position will be addressed, as well as engine and exhaust layout.For comparison, the requirements of a US 2010/EURO VI compliant high EGR engine are discussed: base engine design, heat rejection, fuel injection equipment, turbo charging…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Automated Model Fit Tool for SCR Control and OBD Development

TNO Automotive-Edwin v.d. Eijnden, Robert Cloudt, Frank Willems, Peter v.d. Heijden
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Reaching EUROVI Heavy Duty emission limits will result in more testing time for developing control and OBD algorithms than to reach EUROV emissions. It is likely that these algorithms have to be adapted for a WHTC (World Heavy Duty Transient Cycle) for EUROVI. This cycle when started cold can only be performed a limited times a day on the engine testbench, because of the cooling down time.The development time and cost increases to reach EUROVI emission levels.Accurate simulation tools can reduce the time and costs by reducing the amount of tests required on the testbench. In order to use simulation tools to develop pre calibrations, the models must be fitted and validated.This paper will focus on the fit process of an SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) model. A unique test procedure has been developed to characterize an SCR catalyst using an engine testbench in ±2 days. This data is used in an automatic SCR fit tool to obtain the model parameters in a few days. The result is a model that predicts the NO, NO2 and…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Ammonia Sensor for Closed-Loop SCR Control

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Delphi Corporation-Da Yu Wang, Sheng Yao, Mark Shost, Joon-Ho Yoo, David Cabush, David Racine
TNO Automotive-Robert Cloudt, Frank Willems
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-0919
Published 2008-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the dominant solution for meeting future NOx reduction regulations for heavy-duty diesel powertrains. SCR systems benefit from closed-loop control if an appropriate exhaust gas sensor were available. An ammonia sensor has recently been developed for use as a feedback element in closed-loop control of urea dosing in a diesel SCR aftertreatment system. Closed-loop control of SCR dosing enables the SCR system to be robust against disturbances and to meet conformity of production (COP) and in-use compliance norms.The ammonia sensor is based on a non-equilibrium electrochemical principle and outputs emf signals. The sensor performs well when tested in a diesel engine exhaust environment and has minimum cross interference with CO, HC, NO, NO2, SO2, H2O and O2.Previous work, done in a simulation environment, demonstrated that an ammonia sensor provides the optimal feedback for urea dosing control algorithms in closed-loop SCR systems. A model-based SCR control strategy deploying an ammonia feedback sensor demonstrated high NOx conversion, low NH3 slip and good robustness against disturbances. In this paper, FTP, ETC and ESC test…
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Is Closed-Loop SCR Control Required to Meet Future Emission Targets?

DAF Trucks-Ignace van den Heuvel
Eindhoven University of Technology-Bram de Jager, Wiebe Boomsma
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
To meet 2010 emission targets, optimal SCR system performance is required. In addition, attention has to be paid to in-use compliance requirements. Closed-loop control seems an attractive option to meet the formulated goals. This study deals with the potential and limitations of closed-loop SCR control.High NOx conversion in combination with acceptable NH3 slip can be realized with an open-loop control strategy. However, closed-loop control is needed to make the SCR system robust for urea dosage inaccuracy, catalyst ageing and NOx engine-out variations. Then, the system meets conformity of production and in-use compliance norms.To demonstrate the potential of closed-loop SCR control, a NOx sensor based control strategy with cross-sensitivity compensation is compared with an adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy and an open-loop strategy. The adaptive surface coverage/NH3 slip control strategy shows best performance over simulated ESC and ETC cycles.SCR catalyst dynamics, time delay in the urea injection and maximum NH3 slip targets limit the performance of closed-loop SCR control. If new reagent dosage systems and future catalyst technology are able to relieve these limitations, closed-loop…
Annotation ability available