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Cycle-to-Cycle Variation Analysis of Two-Colour PLIF Temperature Measurements Calibrated with Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy in a Firing GDI Engine

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Loughborough University-Joseph Camm
UM-SJTU JI, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ-Li Shen, David L.S. Hung, Mengqi Liu
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0722
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In-cylinder temperatures and their cyclic variations strongly influence many aspects of internal combustion engine operation, from chemical reaction rates determining the production of NOx and particulate matter to the tendency for auto-ignition leading to knock in spark ignition engines. Spatially resolved measurements of temperature can provide insights into such processes and enable validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations used to model engine performance and guide engine design.This work uses a combination of Two-Colour Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (TC-PLIF) and Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) to measure the in-cylinder temperature distributions of a firing optically accessible spark ignition engine. TC-PLIF performs 2-D temperature measurements using fluorescence emission in two different wavelength bands but requires calibration under conditions of known temperature, pressure and composition. Here the TC-PLIF technique is calibrated in-situ using high precision (<1%) LIGS point measurements.Temperature distributions were recorded during the compression stroke for fired operation with Direct Injection and with Plenum Fuel Injection of three two-component fuels containing toluene and iso-octane. Temperature inhomogeneity was observed for all fuels and injection strategies, with mm-scale regions…
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The Oxford Cold Driven Shock Tube (CDST) for Fuel Spray and Chemical Kinetics Research

University of Oxford-Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Xiaohang Fang, Luke Doherty, Matthew McGilvray, Felix Foerster
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A new reflected shock tube facility, the Cold Driven Shock Tube (CDST), has been designed, built and commissioned at the University of Oxford for investigating IC engine fuel spray physics and chemistry. Fuel spray and chemical kinetics research requires its test gas to be at engine representative pressures and temperatures. A reflected shock tube generates these extreme conditions in the test gas for short durations (order milliseconds) by transiently compressing it through a reflected shock process. The CDST has been designed for a nominal test condition of 6 MPa, 900 K slug of air (300 mm long) for a steady test duration of 3 ms. The facility is capable of studying reacting mixtures at higher pressures (up to 150 bar) than other current facilities, whilst still having comparable size (100 mm diameter) and optical access to interrogate the fuel spray with high speed imaging and laser diagnostics. Future data gathered will support fundamental research for IC engine and fuel technologies leading to even higher thermal efficiency along with a reduction in emissions, and provide high quality, repeatable validation data for advanced…
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Comparison of Transient Diesel Spray Break-Up between Two Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

Jaguar Land Rover Ltd.-David Richardson
University of Oxford-Louis Nicholson, Xiaohang Fang, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Accurate modeling of the initial transient period of spray development is critical within diesel engines, as it impacts on the amount of vapor penetration and hence the combustion characteristics of the spray. In addition, in multiple injection schemes shorter injections will be mostly, if not totally, within the initial transient period. This paper investigates how two different commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes (hereafter noted as Code 1 and Code 2) simulate transient diesel spray atomization, in a non-combusting environment. The case considered for comparison is a single-hole injection of n-dodecane representing the Engine Combustion Network’s ‘Spray A’ condition. It was identified that the different spray break-up models used by the codes (Reitz-Diwakar for Code 1, Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) for Code 2) had a significant impact on the transient liquid penetration. From differing initial base setups, Code 1’s case was then matched as closely as possible to Code 2’s case, applying the KH-RT break-up model in Code 1 with the same constants for the break-up and turbulence models as in Code 2. Despite the nominal…
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Spray Behaviour and Particulate Matter Emissions with M15 Methanol/Gasoline Blends in a GDI Engine

Jaguar Land Rover Limited-Dave Richardson
University of Oxford-Safwan Hanis Mohd Murad, Joseph Camm, Martin Davy, Richard Stone
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Model M15 gasoline fuels have been created from pure fuel components, to give independent control of volatility, the heavy end content and the aromatic content, in order to understand the effect of the fuel properties on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel spray behaviour and the subsequent particulate number emissions. Each fuel was imaged at a range of fuel temperatures in a spray rig and in a motored optical engine, to cover the full range from non-flashing sprays through to flare flashing sprays. The spray axial penetration (and potential piston and liner impingement), and spray evaporation rate were extracted from the images.Firing engine tests with the fuels with the same fuel temperatures were performed and exhaust particulate number spectra captured using a DMS500 Mark II Particle Spectrometer. Data from the spray images and knowledge of the fuel evaporative performance has been used to explain some of the observed findings that might appear to be against the expected trends, but can be explained in terms of the saturation pressure ratio - the ratio of the fuel vapour…
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The Effect of Non-Ideal Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Non-Ideal Liquid Diffusion on Multi-Component Droplet Evaporation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

Jaguar Land Rover-David Richardson
University of Oxford-Joseph Camm, Richard Stone, Martin Davy
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method.Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered. Well-mixed droplet evaporation may be applicable with slow evaporation, for example early gasoline direct injection; diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation must be considered when faster evaporation is encountered, for example when injection is later, or when the fuel mixture is non-ideal.A bi-component iso-octane/ethanol fuel and a multi-component model gasoline fuel have been simulated with a range of initial conditions representative of gasoline direct injection. The model gasoline fuel has also been tested with a range of ethanol contents between 0% and 20%, to reflect current practice and…
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