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Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emission Optimization at Part and Full Load of a High-Performance V12 SI Engine by a 1D Model

Lamborghini Automobili Spa-Diego Cacciatore, Luca Rizzi
University of Naples Federico II-Vincenzo De Bellis, Enrica Malfi, Antonio Aliperti
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Modern internal combustion engines show complex architectures in order to improve their performance in terms of brake torque and fuel consumption. Concerning naturally-aspirated engines, an optimization of the intake port geometry, together with the selection of a proper valve timing, allow to improve the cylinder filling and hence the performance. The identification of an optimal calibration strategy at test bench usually requires long and expensive experimental activities. Numerical tools can help to support engine calibration, especially in the early design phases.In the present work, a 12-cylinder naturally aspirated spark ignition engine is investigated. The engine is experimentally tested under full and part load operations. Main performance parameters, in-cylinder pressure cycles and raw pollutant emissions are measured. The engine is schematized in a one-dimensional model (GT-Power™), where “user routines” are employed to simulate turbulence, combustion, knock and pollutant production. 1D model is validated against the experimental data, denoting a good accuracy.A calibration procedure is implemented by an external optimizer, coupled with the 1D engine model, with the aim of minimizing the fuel consumption. The procedure decision…
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Knock and Cycle by Cycle Analysis of a High Performance V12 Spark Ignition Engine. Part 2: 1D Combustion and Knock Modeling

SAE International Journal of Engines

Automobili Lamborghini Spa-Fabrizio Minarelli, Diego Cacciatore
University of Naples-Fabio Bozza
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2393
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The results of the experimental analyses, described in Part 1, are here employed to build up an innovative numerical approach for the 1D modeling of combustion, cycle-by-cycle variations and knock of a high performance 12-cylinder spark-ignition engine. The whole engine is schematized in detail in a 1D framework simulation, developed in the GT-Power™ environment. Proper “in-house developed” sub-models are used to describe the combustion process, turbulence phenomenon, cycle-by-cycle variations (CCV) and knock occurrence. In particular, the knock onset is evaluated by a chemical kinetic scheme for a toluene reference fuel, able to detect the presence of auto-ignition reactions in the end-gas zone. In a first stage, the engine model is validated in terms of overall performance parameter and ensemble averaged pressure cycles, for various full and part load operating points and spark timings. Then, the correlation regarding the maximum in-cylinder pressure distribution developed in Part 1 is here applied to predict representative faster-then-average and slower-than-average cycles, miming the effects of the experimentally observed CCV. A proper knock index is introduced and evaluated with reference to…
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Knock and Cycle by Cycle Analysis of a High Performance V12 Spark Ignition Engine. Part 1: Experimental Data and Correlations Assessment

SAE International Journal of Engines

Automobili Lamborghini Spa-Fabrizio Minarelli, Diego Cacciatore
Istituto Motori CNR-Daniela Siano
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2392
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a high performance V12 spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to fully characterize its behavior in terms of both average parameters, cycle-by-cycle variations and knock tendency, for different operating conditions. In particular, for each considered operating point, a spark advance sweep is actuated, starting from a knock-free calibration, up to intense knock operation. Sequences of 300 consecutive pressure cycles are measured for each cylinder, together with the main overall engine performance, including fuel flow, torque, and fuel consumption. Acquired data are statistically analyzed to derive the distributions of main indicated parameters, in order to find proper correlations with ensemble-averaged quantities. In particular, the Coefficient of Variation (CoV) of IMEP and of the in-cylinder peak pressure (pmax) are correlated to the average combustion phasing and duration (MFB50 and Δθb), with a good coefficient of determination. In addition, a high-pass-filtering technique is used to derive the cycle-by-cycle scattering of the Maximum Amplitude of Pressure Oscillation (MAPO) index. A similar statistical analysis is carried out to derive the log-normal distributions of the…
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Lamborghini Approach to Engine Downsizing Engine Friction Modeling

Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A.-Marco Meloni, Diego Cacciatore
FEV GmbH-Jurgen Dohmen, Felix Ring, Franz-Gerd Hermsen
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Downsizing, down speeding and hybridization are becoming a standard in the automotive industry. This paper was initiated to answer Automobili Lamborghini R&D's question: what does downsizing mean In technical literature downsizing is often referred to as reducing displacement and, sometimes, cylinders. Through a methodological approach, analysis and experimental activities Automobili Lamborghini, with FEV's support, shows that downsizing in terms of engine friction reduction means only reduction of displacement. Using the Aventador V12 6.5 liter engine as a baseline, two 4.3 liter engines were designed, a V8 and a V12.The engine friction losses of these two engines were calculated all over the engine speed range and during the NEDC cycle utilizing a simulation tool and verified through FEV's “Strip-Method” database.This approach gives us the holistic understanding on engine components design and which technologies should be introduced for the next Lamborghini engine generation.
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Development of a Timing Chain Drive Model for a High Speed Gasoline Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Automobili Lamborghini Spa-Michele Calabretta, Diego Cacciatore
Ricardo UK Ltd.-Phil Carden, Jonathan Plail
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-0401
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Engine efficiency and optimization are key aspects for automotive manufacturers. Lamborghini has particularly focus attention for reduction of time to market building up a synergic approach for new component's development using simulation, Know-how experiences, engine engineering expertise and experimental validation. In particular to reach the best results in the shortest time it is used, in the preliminary stage of development, a massive support of simulation analysis.In the Lamborghini approach analysis and simulation has become key aspects during concept and development of timing drives. This type of activity is used to support the development of better chain timing drives focusing on improving durability, lower friction, less noise and reduced cost in less time than conventional trial and processes.Even during the concept design phase it is useful to use a mathematical model to calculate dynamic forces and motions of a chain drive. These models are used to assess in detail the choice of drive layout, to check that component load limits are not exceeded and to make a first choice of the tensioner settings. Later, when the…
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Valvetrain Friction - Modeling, Analysis and Measurement of a High Performance Engine Valvetrain System

SAE International Journal of Engines

Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A.-Michele Calabretta, Diego Cacciatore
Ricardo UK-Phil Carden
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1492
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Engine efficiency is one of the key aspects to reduce CO₂ emissions. Lamborghini S.p.A. has focused attention on the engine friction modeling, analysis and measurement to understand and control the phenomena. To reduce friction it is necessary to improve understanding of the behavior of the engine components and to pay attention to detail at every tribological contact. The valve train can make a significant contribution to whole engine friction especially at low engine speed and this is particularly true for a high speed sports car engine. Direct acting valve trains are often used for this type of engine to minimize the moved mass and so enable high speed operation. However the sliding contact between the cam and tappet results in higher friction loss than the roller finger follower valve train used on many modern passenger car engines. In addition, the high maximum engine speed demands a large valve spring force to maintain contact between cam and tappet. The large spring force can lead to increased valve train friction at low engine speed when the inertia…
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