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Buttery, Ian
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Open Access

Demonstration of Fuel Economy Benefit of Friction Modifier Additives via Fuel-to-Lubricant Transfer in Euro-5 Gasoline Fleet

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions UK-Sarah M. Remmert, Alison Felix-Moore, Steven R. Nattrass, Ian Buttery, Pauline Ziman, Sue J. Smith
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2611
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Improved fuel economy is a key measure of performance in the automotive industry, driven both by market demand and increasingly stringent government emissions regulations. In this climate, targeting even small benefits to fuel consumption (FC) can have a large impact when considering fleet average CO2 emissions. Lubricant properties over the course of an oil drain interval (ODI) directly influence long-term fuel consumption. Furthermore, viscosity control gasoline additives have been shown to provide FC benefit via fuel-to-lubricant transfer. This study investigated whether consistently fueling with gasoline containing friction modifier (FM) additives could provide a long-term fuel consumption benefit via a lubricant transfer mechanism.A robust fleet trial method was employed to quantify fuel consumption benefits of two friction modifier additive packages relative to a baseline deposit control additive (DCA) package in a 95 RON, E5 fuel. FC was measured for 32 market relevant vehicles over the course of a European ODI. The test was performed with 12,000 mile on-road accumulation in a 60/40 urban/high speed driving route. Changes in FC were measured periodically on a chassis dynamometer…
Open Access

Formation and Removal of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Cars

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Rod Williams, Alastair Smith, Ian Buttery
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1684
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Deposits forming in the injector nozzle holes of modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the fuel injected into the combustion chamber, causing reduced or less efficient combustion, resulting in power loss and increased fuel consumption.A study of the factors affecting injector nozzle tip temperature, a parameter critical to nozzle deposit formation, has been conducted in a Peugeot DW10 passenger car bench engine, as used in the industry standard CEC F-098 injector nozzle deposit test, [1].The findings of the bench engine study were applied in the development of a Chassis Dynamometer (CD) based vehicle test method using Euro 5 compliant vehicles. The developed test method was refined to tune the conditions as far as practicable towards a realistic driving pattern whilst maintaining sufficient deposit forming tendency to enable test duration to be limited to a reasonable period.The test method developed was applied to a fleet of Euro 4 and 5 compliant vehicles enabling the relative deposit sensitivity of the fleet to be assessed. Subsequently the deposit removal performance of conventional and novel diesel detergents was…
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Management of Lubricant Fuel Economy Performance over Time through Fuel Additives

Shell-Scott Rappaport, Steve Nattrass, Sue Smith, Mark Brewer, Ian Buttery, Hongrui Ma
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Government regulations and market demands continue to emphasize conservation of fossil fuels in the transportation industry. As a consequence, any incremental improvement in fuel economy (FE) is of great importance in the automotive sector. For instance, lower viscosity lubricants have been shown to improve FE but the longevity of such improvement is compromised by viscosity increases often observed as a lubricant ages during an oil drain interval (ODI). To address this issue, an option to manage lubricant viscometrics via fuel is proposed. In order to investigate such mitigation of viscosity increase during an ODI, and potentially the delivery of an ODI-averaged FE benefit, a fleet test was conducted with a fuel-borne additive intended to control increases in lubricant viscosity.The fleet test compared a market-representative reference fuel to a fuel containing a viscosity control additive (VCA). Five different European vehicle models were tested over a 15,000 mile ODI using a “quad” fleet testing protocol previously described. The FE evolution of each vehicle was determined by the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) procedure at intervals throughout the…
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