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An Investigation of Real-Gas and Multiphase Effects on Multicomponent Diesel Sprays

Sandia National Laboratories-Stephen Busch
Wisconsin Engine Research Consultants-Federico Perini, Rolf Reitz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0240
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lagrangian spray modeling represents a critical boundary condition for multidimensional simulations of in-cylinder flow structure, mixture formation and combustion in diesel engines. Segregated models for injection, breakup, collision and vaporization are usually employed to pass appropriate momentum, mass, and energy source terms to the gas-phase solver. Careful calibration of each sub-model generally produces appropriate results. Yet, the predictiveness of this modeling approach has been questioned by recent experimental observations, which showed that at trans- and super-critical conditions relevant to diesel injection, classical atomization and vaporization behavior is replaced by a mixing-controlled phase transition process of a dense fluid. In this work, we assessed the shortcomings of classical spray modeling with respect to real-gas and phase-change behavior, employing a multicomponent phase equilibrium solver and liquid-jet theory. A Peng-Robinson Equation of State (PR-EoS) model was implemented, and EoS-neutral thermodynamics derivatives were introduced in the FRESCO CFD platform turbulent NS solver. A phase equilibrium solver based on Gibbs free energy minimization was implemented to test phase stability and to compute phase equilibrium. Zero-dimensional flash calculations were employed to…
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Effects of Stepped-Lip Combustion System Design and Operating Parameters on Turbulent Flow Evolution in a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company, USA-Eric Kurtz
Sandia National Laboratories, USA-Stephen Busch
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0016
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Interactions between fuel sprays and stepped-lip diesel piston bowls can produce turbulent flow structures that improve efficiency and emissions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent experimental and simulation efforts provide evidence that increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions coincide with the formation of long-lived, energetic vortices during the mixing-controlled portion of the combustion event. These vortices are believed to promote fuel-air mixing, increase heat-release rates, and improve air utilization, but they become weaker as main injection timing is advanced nearer to the top dead center (TDC). Further efficiency and emissions benefits may be realized if vortex formation can be strengthened for near-TDC injections. This work presents a simulation-based analysis of turbulent flow evolution within a stepped-lip combustion chamber. A conceptual model summarizes key processes in the evolution of turbulent flow for main injections starting after TDC. Differences in turbulent flow evolution are described for a near-TDC main injection, and potential variations in combustion system design and operating parameters to enhance vortex formation under these conditions are hypothesized. The parametric studies executed to…
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Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Ford Motor Company-Eric Kurtz
Sandia National Laboratories-Stephen Busch, Kan Zha
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In this work we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a small-bore direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the Sandia single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations were carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric body-fitted mesh modeling of the engine and were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed. In-cylinder mixture formation analysis showed that ignition of the pilot injection mixture develops nearly as it would in a homogeneous adiabatic reactor, being mostly advected, not mixed, by the bowl’s swirling motion, while its timing is influenced by the local flow field. Details of the local in-cylinder flow are also more crucial than injection parameters in igniting the main injection’s premixed fuel, as it…
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Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Richard C. Peterson
Ford Motor Co.-Eric Kurtz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity. As a result, errors in near-TDC swirl ratio, vortex structure and turbulence availability were seen when employing sector meshing, even if a 360-degree sector, with direct IVC flow…
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Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

Ford Motor Company-Eric Kurtz
General Motors Global R & D-Alok Warey
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.While the flow structure in the conventional, re-entrant combustion chamber is dominated by a single toroidal vortex, the turbulent flow evolution in the stepped-lip combustion chamber depends more strongly on main injection timing. For the injection timing at which faster mixing controlled heat release and reduced soot emissions have been observed experimentally,…
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Experimental and Numerical Studies of Bowl Geometry Impacts on Thermal Efficiency in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Ford Motor Company-Eric Kurtz
General Motors LLC-Alok Warey, Richard Peterson
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In light- and medium-duty diesel engines, piston bowl shape influences thermal efficiency, either due to changes in wall heat loss or to changes in the heat release rate. The relative contributions of these two factors are not clearly described in the literature. In this work, two production piston bowls are adapted for use in a single cylinder research engine: a conventional, re-entrant piston, and a stepped-lip piston. An injection timing sweep is performed at constant load with each piston, and heat release analyses provide information about thermal efficiency, wall heat loss, and the degree of constant volume combustion. Zero-dimensional thermodynamic simulations provide further insight and support for the experimental results. The effect of bowl geometry on wall heat loss depends on injection timing, but changes in wall heat loss cannot explain changes in efficiency. Late cycle heat release is faster with the stepped-lip bowl than with the conventional re-entrant bowl, which leads to a higher degree of constant volume combustion and therefore higher thermal efficiency. This effect also depends on injection timing. In general, increasing…
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A Study of Piston Geometry Effects on Late-Stage Combustion in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine Using Combustion Image Velocimetry

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company-Eric Kurtz
General Motors LLC-Alok Warey, Richard C. Peterson
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0230
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In light-duty direct-injection (DI) diesel engines, combustion chamber geometry influences the complex interactions between swirl and squish flows, spray-wall interactions, as well as late-cycle mixing. Because of these interactions, piston bowl geometry significantly affects fuel efficiency and emissions behavior. However, due to lack of reliable in-cylinder measurements, the mechanisms responsible for piston-induced changes in engine behavior are not well understood. Non-intrusive, in situ optical measurement techniques are necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the piston geometry effect on in-cylinder processes and to assist in the development of predictive engine simulation models.This study compares two substantially different piston bowls with geometries representative of existing technology: a conventional re-entrant bowl and a stepped-lip bowl. Both pistons are tested in a single-cylinder optical diesel engine under identical boundary conditions. Utilizing high-speed soot natural luminosity (NL) imaging, 20 kHz time-resolved combustion image velocimetry (CIV) technique is developed to quantify the macro-scale motions of soot clouds during the mixing-controlled portion of combustion.Under a part-load conventional combustion regime, CIV-resolved swirl ratio and the tumble-plane projection of velocity fields confirm that…
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Comparison of Linear, Non-Linear and Generalized RNG-Based k-epsilon Models for Turbulent Diesel Engine Flows

Sandia National Laboratories-Kan Zha, Stephen Busch
University of Wisconsin-Madison-Federico Perini, Rolf Reitz
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this work, linear, non-linear and a generalized renormalization group (RNG) two-equation RANS turbulence models of the k-epsilon form were compared for the prediction of turbulent compressible flows in diesel engines. The object-oriented, multidimensional parallel code FRESCO, developed at the University of Wisconsin, was used to test the alternative models versus the standard k-epsilon model.Test cases featured the academic backward facing step and the impinging gas jet in a quiescent chamber. Diesel engine flows featured high-pressure spray injection in a constant volume vessel from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), as well as intake flows in a high-swirl diesel engine. For the engine intake flows, a model of the Sandia National Laboratories 1.9L light-duty single cylinder optical engine was used. An extensive experimental campaign provided validation data in terms of ensemble averages of planar PIV measurements at different vertical locations in the combustion chamber, for different swirl ratio configurations during both the intake and the compression strokes.The generalized RNG k-epsilon model provided the best accuracy trade-off for both swirl and shear flows, thanks to the polynomial…
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Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Close-Coupled Pilot Injections to Reduce Combustion Noise in a Small-Bore Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

General Motors Company-Alok Warey, Francesco Pesce, Richard Peterson, Alberto Vassallo
Sandia National Laboratories-Stephen Busch, Kan Zha, Paul C. Miles
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0796
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A pilot-main injection strategy is investigated for a part-load operating point in a single cylinder optical Diesel engine. As the energizing dwell between the pilot and main injections decreases below 200 μs, combustion noise reaches a minimum and a reduction of 3 dB is possible. This decrease in combustion noise is achieved without increased pollutant emissions. Injection schedules employed in the engine are analyzed with an injection analyzer to provide injection rates for each dwell tested. Two distinct injection events are observed even at the shortest dwell tested; rate shaping of the main injection occurs as the dwell is adjusted. High-speed elastic scattering imaging of liquid fuel is performed in the engine to examine initial liquid penetration rates. The penetration rate data provide evidence that rate shaping of the initial phase of the main injection is occurring in the engine and that this rate shaping is largely consistent with the injection rate data, but the results demonstrate that these changes are not responsible for the observed trend in combustion noise.A zero-dimensional model is created to…
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Principal Component Analysis and Study of Port-Induced Swirl Structures in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine

Sandia National Laboratories-Kan Zha, Stephen Busch, Paul Miles
University of Wisconsin-Federico Perini, Rolf D. Reitz
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this work computational and experimental approaches are combined to characterize in-cylinder flow structures and local flow field properties during operation of the Sandia 1.9L light-duty optical Diesel engine. A full computational model of the single-cylinder research engine was used that considers the complete intake and exhaust runners and plenums, as well as the adjustable throttling devices used in the experiments to obtain different swirl ratios. The in-cylinder flow predictions were validated against an extensive set of planar PIV measurements at different vertical locations in the combustion chamber for different swirl ratio configurations. Principal Component Analysis was used to characterize precession, tilting and eccentricity, and regional averages of the in-cylinder turbulence properties in the squish region and the piston bowl. Complete sweeps of the port throttle configurations were run to study their effects on the flow structure, together with their correlation with the swirl ratio. Significant deviations between the flows in the piston bowl and squish regions were observed. Piston bowl design, more than the swirl ratio, was identified to foster flow homogeneity between these…
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