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Inner-Insulated Turbocharger Technology to Reduce Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Modern Engines

BorgWarner Turbo Systems-Jürgen Werner
Ricardo UK Ltd-Joshua Dalby
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Reducing emissions from light duty vehicles is critical to meet current and future air quality targets. With more focus on real world emissions from light-duty vehicles, the interactions between engine and exhaust gas aftertreatment are critical. For modern engines, most emissions are generated during the warm-up phase following a cold start. For Diesel engines this is exaggerated due to colder exhaust temperatures and larger aftertreatment systems. The De-NOx aftertreatment can be particularly problematic. Engine manufacturers are required to take measures to address these temperature issues which often result in higher fuel consumption (retarding combustion, increasing engine load or reducing the Diesel air-fuel ratio).In this paper we consider an inner-insulated turbocharger as an alternative, passive technology which aims to reduce the exhaust heat losses between the engine and the aftertreatment. Firstly, the concept and design of the inner-insulated turbocharger is presented. A transient 3D CFD/FEM (Computation Fluid Dynamics/Finite Element Modelling) simulation is conducted and predicts that external heat losses will be reduced by 70% compared to a standard turbocharger, i.e. non-insulated turbocharger. A 1D modelling methodology…
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Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
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Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

No Affiliation-Keeley Burke
Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Michael Gee, Rod Williams
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis. One of the vehicles was particularly sensitive to the vehicle warm-up rate which caused significant variations in catalyst light-off strategy within the engine management system (EMS). This was seen to cause up to 2.3% variability in fuel consumption.…
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Chassis Dynamometer Testing: Addressing the Challenges of New Global Legislation

Eduardo Galindo
AVL Iberica SA-David Blanco
  • Book
  • R-452
Published 2017-06-29 by SAE International in United States

The use of the chassis dynamometer test cells has been an integral part of the vehicle development and validation process for several decades, involving specialists from different fields, not all of them necessarily experts in automotive engineering.

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Analysis of a Diesel Passenger Car Behavior On-Road and over Certification Duty Cycles

SAE International Journal of Engines

Shell Global Solutions (UK)-Michael Gee, Rod Williams
University of Bath-Edward Chappell, Richard Burke, Pin Lu
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2328
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Precise, repeatable and representative testing is a key tool for developing and demonstrating automotive fuel and lubricant products. This paper reports on the first findings of a project that aims to determine the requirements for highly repeatable test methods to measure very small differences in fuel economy and powertrain performance. This will be underpinned by identifying and quantifying the variations inherent to this specific test vehicle, both on-road and on Chassis Dynamometer (CD), that create a barrier to improved testing methods. In this initial work, a comparison was made between on-road driving, the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) and World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) cycles to understand the behavior of various vehicle systems along with the discrepancies that can arise owing to the particular conditions of the standard test cycles. The engine controller of a 2.0L diesel vehicle with active de-NOx and a particulate filter (DPF) has been monitored over 13,700km of driving. The engine speed/torque operating points showed that both the NEDC and WLTC fail to capture the complete static and dynamic usage…
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Study on the Effects of EGR Supply Configuration on Cylinder-to-Cylinder Dispersion and Engine Performance Using 1D-3D Co-Simulation

University of Bath-Pavlos Dimitriou, Richard Burke, Colin D. Copeland, Sam Akehurst
  • Technical Paper
  • 2015-32-0816
Published 2015-11-17 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is widely used in IC combustion engines for diluting air intake charge and controlling NOx emission. The rate of EGR required by an engine varies by the speed and load and control of the right amount entering the cylinders is crucial to ensure good engine performance and low NOx emission. However, controlling the amount of EGR entering the intake manifold does not ensure that EGR rate will be evenly distributed among the engine's cylinders. This can many times lead to cylinders operating at very high or low EGR rates which contradictory can deteriorate particulate matter and NOx emission.The present study analyses the cylinder-to-cylinder EGR dispersion of a 4 cylinder 2.2L EUROV Diesel engine and its effects on the combustion stability. A 1D-3D coupling simulation is performed using GT-Power and STAR-CCM+ to analyze the effects of intake manifold geometry and EGR supply configuration on the EGR homogeneity and cylinder-to-cylinder distribution.The results confirm that the EGR supply configuration plays a key role on the intake air charge homogeneity and as a result to…
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Review of Turbocharger Mapping and 1D Modelling Inaccuracies with Specific Focus on Two-Stag Systems

University of Bath-Calogero Avola, Colin Copeland, Tomasz Duda, Richard Burke, Sam Akehurst, Chris Brace
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The adoption of two stage serial turbochargers in combination with internal combustion engines can improve the overall efficiency of powertrain systems. In conjunction with the increase of engine volumetric efficiency, two stage boosting technologies are capable of improving torque and pedal response of small displacement engines. In two stage sequential systems, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbochargers are packaged in a way that the exhaust gases access the LP turbine after exiting the HP turbine. On the induction side, fresh air is compressed sequentially by LP and HP compressors. The former is able to deliver elevated pressure ratios, but it is not able to highly compressor low flow rates of air. The latter turbo-machine can increase charge pressure at lower mass air flow and be by-passed at high rates of air flow. In fact, by-pass valves and waste-gated turbines are often included in two stage boosting systems in order to regulate operations and divert flow away from the turbocharger when necessary. By-pass valves are often external to the turbocharger and wastegates valves are…
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Simulating Physiological Response with a Passive Sensor Manikin and an Adaptive Thermal Manikin to Predict Thermal Sensation and Comfort

Ford Motor Company-Clay Maranville
Measurement Technology NW-Richard Burke
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort can be difficult to obtain within automotive environments, especially under transient and asymmetric heating and cooling scenarios. Evaluation of HVAC system performance in terms of comfort commonly requires human subject testing, which may involve multiple repetitions, as well as multiple test subjects. Instrumentation (typically comprised of an array of temperature sensors) is usually only sparsely applied across the human body, significantly reducing the spatial resolution of available test data. Further, since comfort is highly subjective in nature, a single test protocol can yield a wide variation in results which can only be overcome by increasing the number of test replications and subjects. In light of these difficulties, various types of manikins are finding use in automotive testing scenarios. These manikins can act as human surrogates from which local skin and core temperatures can be obtained, which are necessary for accurately predicting local and whole body thermal sensation and comfort using a physiology-based comfort model (e.g., the Berkeley Comfort Model).This paper evaluates two different types of manikins, i) an adaptive…
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Predicting the Nitrogen Oxides Emissions of a Diesel Engine using Neural Networks

Univ. of Bath-Qingning Zhang, Andrew Pennycott, Richard Burke, Sam Akehurst, Chris Brace
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nitrogen oxides emissions are an important aspect of engine design and calibration due to increasingly strict legislation. As a consequence, accurate modeling of nitrogen oxides emissions from Diesel engines could play a crucial role during the design and development phases of vehicle powertrain systems. A key step in future engine calibration will be the need to capture the nonlinear behavior of the engine with respect to nitrogen oxides emissions within a rapid-calculating mathematical model. These models will then be used in optimization routines or on-board control features.In this paper, an artificial neural network structure incorporating a number of engine variables as inputs including torque, speed, oil temperature and variables related to fuel injection is developed as a method of predicting the production of nitrogen oxides based on measured test data. A multi-layer perceptron model is identified and validated using data from dynamometry tests.The model predicts exhaust nitrogen oxide concentrations under different engine conditions with satisfactory accuracy. The developed neural network model has potential applications in real-time control aimed at reducing nitrogen oxides emission levels.
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Turbocharger Dynamic Performance Prediction by Volterra Series Model

University of Bath-Qiyou Deng, Richard Burke
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Current turbocharger models are based on characteristic maps derived from experimental measurements taken under steady conditions on dedicated gas stand facility. Under these conditions heat transfer is ignored and consequently the predictive performances of the models are compromised, particularly under the part load and dynamic operating conditions that are representative of real powertrain operations.This paper proposes to apply a dynamic mathematical model that uses a polynomial structure, the Volterra Series, for the modelling of the turbocharger system. The model is calculated directly from measured performance data using an extended least squares regression. In this way, both compressor and turbine are modelled together based on data from dynamic experiments rather than steady flow data from a gas stand. The modelling approach has been applied to dynamic data taken from a physics based model, acting as a virtual test cell. Varying frequency sinusoidal signals were applied to the compressor and turbine pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperature to drive the physic model.The results show that, for both turbine and compressor the coefficient of determination (R2) values of…
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