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Bendjellal, F.
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Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters

J-Y. Foret-Bruno, X. Trosseille, Y. Page, J-F Huère, J-Y. Le Coz, J-C Coltat
CEESAR-T. Phalempin, D. Villeforceix, P. Baudrit, H. Guillemot
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties.In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have…
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Development of a head restraint for occupant protection in rear-end collisions

Renault Advanced Projects-F. Bendjellal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2000-04-0335
Published 2000-06-07 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers in United Kingdom
In France, rear impact accounts for 1.5% of killed and 2.5% of severely injured occupants in real world accidents involving passenger cars. Compared to other crash configurations, frontal and side impacts for instance, rear impact generates rather minor injuries (AIS 1 level), which in the majority of cases affect the cervical region. In terms of Δ V, the main area of concern for this type of injuries ranges below 15 to 20 km/h.There are a variety of parameters of importance in the rear end impact. The main parameters are the crash severity, the adjustment of the head restraint relative to occupant size and in particular relative to head neck area, the design of the seat and that of the head restraint. The two latter parameters are key aspects as they influence directly occupant kinematics relative to the car. For instance, a head restraint that incorporates safety features might be insufficient in restraining head-neck region if the seat design is poor. The other way, i.e., a good seat design and poor head restraint, cannot address the…

Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes with Occupant Restrained with Belt Load Limiter

CEESAR-T. Phalempin, D. Villeforceix, P. Dandres, C. Got
Lab Renault / PSA Peugeot-Citroën-J-Y. Foret-Bruno, X. Trosseille, J-Y. Le Coz
Published 1998-11-02 by SAE International in United States
In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that the greatest proportion of restrained occupants sustaining severe injuries and fatalities are involved in frontal impact (70% and 50% respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restraint occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the seat belt. In the seventies, a few cars were equipped in France with load limiters and it was thereby possible to observe a relationship between the force applied and the occupant's age with regard to this thoracic risk.The reduction of intrusion for the most violent frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic risks with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact violence. It is therefore essential to limit restraint forces with a seat belt to reduce the number of road casualties, especially for the most elderly.In order to address the thoracic risk in frontal impact, a restraint system combining belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension,…
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Development of a Finite Element Model of the Neck

Departement Biomédical de I'Automobile-C. Tarrière
Institut de Recherches Orthopédiques-F. Dauvilliers
Published 1994-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Head neck responses from volunteer experiments, as obtained in various loading directions by the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory, represent a unique set of data in the field of biomechanical research. From this a set of volunteer thoracic (T1) and head responses were selected as a reference for this study. Two loading conditions were considered i.e. frontal and lateral directions.The objective of this study is to develop a finite element model of the human neck in frontal and lateral directions. The number of elements in the model was kept low in order to reduce the processing time for simulation and to minimize damping problems. The structure of the model is as follows: the vertebrae and the head were considered as rigid bodies. The interface between vertebrae such as discs and different ligaments are modelled by brick and spring elements. The passive action of the muscles are taken into account when determining the stiffness characteristics of the ligaments. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of kinematic responses of the head (comparison with NBDL data) in frontal and lateral…
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Acea Investigations Regarding Hybrid Iii Chest Deflection

ACEA-U. Westfal
BMW-E. Hautmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 946030
Published 1994-05-23 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
In line with agreements with SAE experts a research program aiming at the evaluation of these improvements was conducted by ACEA. It consisted of dummy preparation, static and pendulum tests involving the chest, and sled tests with driver and passenger dummies for different sled deceleration pulses and occupant restraints (three-point belt system or a combination with an airbag).The objective of this paper is to highlight the chest deflection measurement approach that was implemented in the Hybrid III dummy and to present detailed results which were obtained in this program.During the static and pendulum tests, when the loadings to the chest have been moderate, the standard rod and the string potentiometers appeared to function without any obvious faults. However, in sled tests some problems were observed; while the string potentiometers seemed to function well, the rod potentiometer has failed in a few cases, due to disengagement of the rod from the groove in the sternum plate.A general observation from all tests is, that the rod potentiometer in the large majority of cases shows an about 10…

The Use of a Multi-Accelerometric Method in Automotive Safety Tests

Peugeot S.A./Renault-L. Oudenard, F. Bendjellal, A. Bellini, J. Uriot
  • Technical Paper
  • 916113
Published 1991-11-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Following the specific work of evaluation of methods for computing angular acceleration from the measurement of linear accelerations, the results of which are set out in a previous publication, two concrete applications were implemented with complementary objectives: Evaluate the sensitivity of angular acceleration measurement for an impact with airbag as compared to a direct impact on the steering wheel; and Estimate the precision of the measurements taken by studying the 3-D kinematics of a steering column (with dummy) by comparison with a vehicle without a conventional film study.In both cases, the results obtained have shed light on aspects which could not have been detected any other way (influence of the airbag on head data other than the HIC, dummy/steering column interaction). This study also provided an opportunity of evaluating the Nx1 computation method developed in the laboratory. This method allows full use to be made of the measurement potential provided by accelerometer mounts APR 89/II and APR 89/III, composed of 5 or 6 accelerometric triaxes.

Development of a Modelization of Human Being in Lateral Impact, to Mitigate the Insufficiencies of Actual Side Impact Dummies

Lab. of Physiology and Biomechanics, Associated with Peugeot-P. Mack, F. Chamouard, F. Bendjellal, D. Song, Y. Talantikite, C. Tarrière
  • Technical Paper
  • 896083
Published 1989-01-01 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
In previous publications, the biofidelity of EUROSID and SID dummies was evaluated in lateral impacts, according to ISO human reference data. The main conclusions of these evaluations was that both dummies display a rather poor biofidelity, and so they are inappropriate for use to improve lateral protection of occupants. More, their conception is very different from that of human beings and it is shown in particular that the first five ribs of the 50th percentile human being do not have any equivalent on both dummies; the mechanical characteristics of the thorax and abdomen have no similarity with those of the corresponding body areas in the human being. For these reasons it is necessary to have recourse directly to the human beings.After performing special tests with human subjects, in order to obtain the necessary data which do not exist in bibliography, a modelization of the human being was developed by the LPB-APR, to be integrated in the CCMC.CTP. The validation of this model was checked out by using results of biomechanical tests with human subjects, selected…

The biofidelity of the EUROSID neck

Institut de Recherches Biomecaniques et Accidentologiques-D. Gillet
Ohio State Univ.-R. L. Stalnaker
  • Technical Paper
  • 1987-13-0021
Published 1987-09-08 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
This paper deals with the EUROSID neck performance in terms of biofidelity in both lateral and frontal impact directions. The human reference data base comprises the results from volunteer sled tests conducted by the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory in New Orleans.The EUROSID neck evaluation, according to these data, was performed on the basis of whole dummy sled tests -for lateral direction- and pendulum tests- for frontal direction-. In earlier APR publication it was shown that EUROSID neck responses in lateral direction are rather satisfactory. This conclusion was however based on the basis of the first formulation of neck requirements as proposed by ISO/TC22/SC12/WG5. Recently, these requirements have been completed. According to this new formulation, an evaluation of EUROSID neck performance is proposed here.In order to illustrate the neck behavior under frontal solicitations a dozen frontal pendulum tests involving the EUROSID head/neck assembly were carried out by the Vehicle Research and Test Center. Results of one of the most severe pendulum test are presented and compared to the corridors generated at TNO using a mathematical simulation of…

The Eurosid Side Impact Dummy

Association Peugeot S.A., Renault, France-C. Tarrière, F. Bendjellal, D. Gillet
Instituut voor Wegtransportmiddelen, TNO, Netherlands-J. Maltha
  • Technical Paper
  • 856029
Published 1985-01-01 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
EUROSID is the side impact dummy that has been designed and has now been almost completely developed by a group of European research laboratories working together under the auspices of the European Experimental Vehicles Committee (EEVC). It represents a bringing together of components and ideas from the three experimental sided impact dummies sponsored by the EEC1 as part of their Biomechanics Programme. These were produced by APR (Peugeot-Renault), ONSER, and MIRA. This paper describes the evolution of the EUROSID dummy and discusses the advances in biofidelity, the responses of its various components to impact, and the types of measurements it can record.