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Study of simple detection of gasoline fuel contaminants contributing to increase Particulate Matter Emissions

IFP Energies Nouvelles-Arij Ben Amara, Marion Lacoue-Negre, David Goncalves, Melinda Tebib, Isabelle Leveque, Vincent Souchon, Mickael Matrat, Laurie Starck
Toyota Motor Corp.-Yutaka Iida, Takashi Nomura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0384
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of particulate emissions is one of the most important challenges facing the development of future gasoline engines. Several studies have demonstrated the impact of fuel chemical composition on the emissions of particulate matter, more particularly, the detrimental effect of high boiling point components such as heavy aromatics. Fuel contamination is likely to become a critical issue as new, more stringent regulations such as Real Driving Emissions RDE with market fuel. The objective of this study is to investigate several experimental approaches to detect the presence of Diesel fuel in Gasoline which is likely to alter pollutant emissions. To achieve this, a fuel matrix composed of 14 fuels was built presenting diesel fuel in varying concentrations from 0.1 to 2% v/v. The fuel matrix was characterized using several original techniques developed in this study. These are Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) associated to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square (PLS) modelling, micro-filtration. Their capacity to identify diesel fuel was compared to standard methods, such as, distillation, washed and unwashed gums, high boiling components…
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Impact of Ethanol and Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Particulate Emissions from a Gasoline Vehicle

IFP Energies Nouvelles, France-Toni Tahtouh, Arij Ben Amara, Patricia Anselmi, Laurie Starck
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The impact of transport on global and local pollution has resulted in stricter emission limits. More specifically, increasing attention is being paid to exhaust gas particulate emissions in spark ignition engines. The particulate formation is mainly affected by: 1-engine and fuel system characteristics, 2-fuel properties and 3-exhaust aftertreatment system. In order to estimate the influence of fuel characteristics on particulate emissions, several research works have proposed fuel indices that correlate some of the fuel physical and chemical properties with engine particulate emissions.This work investigates the impact of fuel composition on particulate emissions and evaluates the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) proposed by Aikawa et al. and other fuel indices in terms of agreement with vehicle test bed results for a passenger car.Vehicle tests were performed on New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) by using an E10 Euro VI reference fuel and five different fuel blends with 10% to 20% of ethanol and 23% to 35% of aromatic hydrocarbons content by volume. The effect of aromatic hydrocarbons composition on…
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Exploring and Modeling the Chemical Effect of a Cetane Booster Additive in a Low-Octane Gasoline Fuel

IFP Energies Nouvelles-Minh Duy LE, Mickaël Matrat, Arij Ben Amara
LRGP, CNRS-Université de Lorraine-Pierre-Alexandre Glaude
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0069
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Increasing the internal combustion engine efficiency is necessary to decrease their environmental impact. Several combustion systems demonstrated the interest of low temperature combustion to move toward this objective. However, to ensure a stable combustion, the use of additives has been considered in a several studies. Amongst them, 2-Ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) is considered as a good candidate for these systems but characterizing its chemical effect is required to optimize its use. In this study, its promoting effect (0.1 - 1% mol.) on combustion has been investigated experimentally and numerically in order to better characterize its behavior under different thermodynamic and mixture. Rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments were carried out at equivalence ratio 0.5 and pressure 10 bar, from 675 to 995 K. The targeted surrogate fuel is a mixture of toluene and n-heptane in order to capture the additive effect on both cool flame and main ignition. A kinetic model was developed from literature data assembly and validated upon a large set of variations including species profiles and ignition delays of pure compounds as well as…
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Are Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDID) Mainly Linked to Biofuel Chemical Composition or/and Engine Operation Condition?

IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institute Carnot-Maira Alves Fortunato, Francis Lenglet, Arij Ben Amara, Laurie Starck
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The increased use of alternative fuels has been linked to performance deterioration of injectors and engines as a result of internal diesel injector deposits (IDID). The present paper investigates fuel composition impact on injector tendency to blockage. Three main areas were investigated : (1) deposits linked to paraffins and aromatics content; (2) deposits linked to biodiesel composition using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and hydrotreated vegetal oil (HVO); and (3) deposits linked to the presence of additives (Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride DDSA, Dodecenyl Succinimid DDSI and Sodium Naphthenate). A deposit formation method was developed for the injection bench in order to discriminate the impact of fuels on system performance in terms of fuel volume injected, injection duration and stability. Three operation conditions were tested to represent low, intermediate and high load. In addition, the influence of soaking time and injector heating temperature was evaluated. The nature of the deposit was studied based on its morphology and chemical composition determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) Spectroscopy. Deposits were observed for all fuels, even…
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Critical Analysis of PM Index and Other Fuel Indices: Impact of Gasoline Fuel Volatility and Chemical Composition

IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-Arij Ben Amara, Toni Tahtouh, Elisabeth Ubrich, Laurie Starck
Toyota Motor Corp.-Hidenori Moriya, Yutaka IIda, Nagata KOJI
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Among the challenges for the future facing the development of gasoline engines, one of the most important is the reduction of particles emissions. This study proposes a critical and objective evaluation of the influence of fuel characteristics on gasoline particles emission through the use of Fuel Particle Indices. For this, a selected fuel matrix composed of 22 fuels was built presenting different volatility and chemical composition (content in total aromatics, heavy cuts and ethanol). To represent the fuel sooting tendency, seven Fuel Particle Indices were selected based on a literature review, namely, Particulate Matter Index (PMI), Particulate Number index (PNI), Threshold Sooting index (TSI), Smoke point (SP), Oxygen Extended Sooting Index (OESI), Simplified index 1 and 2 (sPMI 1, sPMI 2). These indices were computed on the fuel matrix and compared on the basis of three main axes. First, the sensitivity to fuel variation. Second, the agreement with engine particles emissions measured on vehicle on three vehicles. Third, the ease to compute with respect to the data availability in the European standard EN228. The comparison…
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Experimental Study of the Impact of Diesel/Biodiesel Blends Oxidation on the Fuel Injection System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

IFP Energies Nouvelles-Arij Ben Amara, Bertrand Lecointe, Nicolas Jeuland
Toyota Motor Corp.-Takuya Takahashi, Yutaka IIda, Hiromichi Hashimoto
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2767
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
The stability of Diesel/Biodiesel blends can play an important role in deposits formation inside the fuel injection system (FIS). The impact of the stability of FAME/Diesel fuel blends on lacquer deposits formation and on the behavior and reliability of the FIS was investigated using blends of Rapeseed and Soybean methyl esters (RME, SME) and conventional Diesel fuel (volume fractions of RME and SME range from 0 to 20%v/v). Fuels were aged under accelerated conditions and tested on an injection test rig according to an operating cycle developed to provoke injector needle blocking. The soaking duration was found to affect injector fouling. A relationship between the injector fouling tendency and the fuel stability was established. Under current test condition, injectors fouling increased with fuel oxidation measured with Total-Acid-Number. Needle fouling occurred at a TAN level of 0.25mg KOH/g and needle blocking occurred at a TAN level of 0.5 and 1 mg KOH/g for B20-SME and B20-RME, respectively. The FAME composition and the fuel ageing procedure can have a significant impact on FIS fouling tendency.
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