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Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low-Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

Continental-Giovanni Avolio
General Motors-Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo, Giacomo Belgiorno
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.In this framework, a comprehensive approach covering the whole powertrain is of primary importance in order to simultaneously meet the performance, efficiency, noise and emission targets, and therefore, further development of the combustion system design and injection system represent important levers for additional improvements. For this purpose, a dedicated 0.5 dm3 single-cylinder engine has…
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The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Continental GmbH, Germany-Giovanni Avolio
General Motors Global Propulsion Systems, Italy-Alberto Vassallo, Francesco Concetto Pesce
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-02-0010
Published 2019-01-23 by SAE International in United States
The article describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement. The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components’ light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features has been thoroughly experimentally examined. The results confirmed the benefits of the employment of high fuel injection pressures as a way to reduce the pfp, combining competitive performance and excellent fuel efficiency with emissions and noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) requirements of last generation diesel engines for passenger car applications. In…
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Assessment of the New Features of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector by Means of Engine Performance Characterization and Spray Visualization

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Sequino, Giacomo Belgiorno, Gabriele Di Blasio, Ezio Mancaruso, Carlo Beatrice, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The application of more efficient compression ignition combustion concepts requires advancement in terms of fuel injection technologies. The injector nozzle is the most critical component of the whole injection system for its impact on the combustion process. It is characterized by the number of holes, diameter, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of the nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to promote the atomization process but the number of holes must be increased to keep constant the injected fuel mass. This logic has been applied to the development of a new generation of injectors. First, the tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate. The vertical movement of the needle generates an annulus area for the fuel delivery on 360 degrees, so controlling the atomization as a function of the vertical plate position. Second, on the base of the obtained results, the authors have introduced a new nozzle configuration. This is characterized by a hybrid fuel injection concept,…
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The Key Role of Advanced, Flexible Fuel Injection Systems to Match the Future CO2 Targets in an Ultra-Light Mid-Size Diesel Engine

Continental Corp-Giovanni Avolio
GM Global Propulsion Systems-Alberto Vassallo, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Published 2018-05-30 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes the results achieved in developing a new diesel combustion system for passenger car application that, while capable of high power density, delivers excellent fuel economy through a combination of mechanical and thermodynamic efficiencies improvement.The project stemmed from the idea that, by leveraging the high fuel injection pressure of last generation common rail systems, it is possible to reduce the engine peak firing pressure (pfp) with great benefits on reciprocating and rotating components light-weighting and friction for high-speed light-duty engines, while keeping the power density at competitive levels. To this aim, an advanced injection system concept capable of injection pressure greater than 2500 bar was coupled to a prototype engine featuring newly developed combustion system. Then, the matching among these features have been thoroughly experimentally examined.The results confirmed the benefits of the employment of high fuel injection pressures as a way to reduce the pfp, combining competitive performance and excellent fuel efficiency with emissions and Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) requirements of last generation diesel engines for passenger car applications. In particular, the paper…
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Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

General Motors-Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo
Istituto Motori CNR-Gabriele Di Blasio, Carlo Beatrice, Giacomo Belgiorno
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-24-0072
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator.Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports.The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized. The tests confirmed the benefits of the employment of very high fuel injection pressures as a way to decouple the trade-off between an excellent power rating and emissions / NVH / CO2 at part load, whose combination truly defines the leading edge of modern diesel engines for automotive application.The paper also discusses the system sensitivity to the boundary conditions, of the charging and exhaust systems, and develops a balanced…
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Analysis of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector Performance in Optical and Metal Research Engines

Istituto Motori CNR-Carlo Beatrice, Giacomo Belgiorno, Gabriele Di Blasio, Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Technologies for direct injection of fuel in compression ignition engines are in continuous development. One of the most investigated components of this system is the injector; in particular, main attention is given to the nozzle characteristics as hole diameter, number, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to increase the average fuel velocity and to promote the atomization process. On the other hand, the number of holes must increase to keep the desired mass flow rate. On this basis, a new logic has been applied for the development of the next generation of injectors. The tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate that moves vertically. The plate motion allows to obtain an annulus area for the delivery of the fuel on 360 degrees; while the plate lift permits to vary the atomization level of the spray. The experimental activities have been performed on a single-cylinder metal engine in order to evaluate…
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Parametric Analysis of the Effect of Pilot Quantity, Combustion Phasing and EGR on Efficiencies of a Gasoline PPC Light-Duty Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Giacomo Belgiorno, Gabriele Di Blasio, Carlo Beatrice
Lund University-Nikolaos Dimitrakopoulos, Martin Tuner, Per Tunestal
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a parametric analysis on the main engine calibration parameters applied on gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is performed. Theoretically, the PPC concept permits to improve both the engine efficiencies and the NOx-soot trade-off simultaneously compared to the conventional diesel combustion.This work is based on the design of experiments (DoE), statistical approach, and investigates on the engine calibration parameters that might affect the efficiencies and the emissions of a gasoline PPC. The full factorial DoE analysis based on three levels and three factors (33 factorial design) is performed at three engine operating conditions of the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycles (WLTC). The pilot quantity (Qpil), the crank angle position when 50% of the total heat is released (CA50), and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) factors are considered. The goal is to identify an engine calibration with high efficiency and low emissions.The experiments are conducted on a 2l Volvo Euro 6 diesel engine. The fuels tested are Gasoline RON75 and MK1 diesel. Gasoline RON75 permits operation from low to high engine load conditions.…
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Parametric Analysis of Compression Ratio Variation Effects on Thermodynamic, Gaseous Pollutant and Particle Emissions of a Dual-Fuel CH4-Diesel Light Duty Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Gabriele Di Blasio, Giacomo Belgiorno, Carlo Beatrice
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The paper reports the results of an experimental campaign aimed to assess the impact of the compression ratio (CR) variation on the performance and pollutant emissions, including the particle size spectrum, of a single cylinder research engine (SCE), representatives of the engine architectures for automotive application, operated in dual-fuel methane-diesel mode. Three pistons with different bowl volumes corresponding to CR values of 16.5, 15.5 and 14.5 were adopted for the whole test campaign. The injection strategy was based on two injection pulses per cycle, as conventionally employed for diesel engines. The test methodology per each CR included the optimization of both 1st injection pulse quantity and intake air mass flow rate in order to lower as much as possible the unburned methane emissions (MHC). The testing points were selected in order to analyse the CR impact on SCE performance at partial and high loads, including the performance estimation over the New European Driving emission homologation Cycle (NEDC) of a real four-cylinder automotive multi-cylinder engine.The results evidence benefits on combustion noise, MHC and particle size spectrum…
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Multidimensional Simulations of Combustion in Methane-Diesel Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engines

Istituto Motori CNR-Valentina Fraioli, Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio, Marianna Migliaccio
University of Naples Parthenope-Giacomo Belgiorno
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The adoption of gaseous fuels for Light Duty (LD) engines is considered a promising solution to efficiently reduce greenhouse gases emissions and diversify fuels supplies, while keeping pollutants production within the limits. In this respect, the Dual Fuel (DF) concept has already proven to be, generally speaking, a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the Heavy-Duty (HD) engines category. Despite this, some issues still require a technological solution, preventing the commercialization of DF engines in wider automotive fields, including the release of high amounts of unburned species, possibility of engine knock, chance of thermal efficiency reduction.In this framework, numerical simulation can be a useful tool, not only to better understand specific characteristics of DF combustion, but also to explore specific geometrical modifications and engine calibrations capable to adapt current LD architectures to this concept. Once the general DF concept is tailored for LD compression ignition engines, respecting practical functional limits, an optimal operating map displays, at different engine load values, a considerable variability in the optimal extent of Diesel substitution and Diesel injection…
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Experimental Evaluation of Compression Ratio Influence on the Performance of a Dual-Fuel Methane-Diesel Light-Duty Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Istituto Motori CNR-Gabriele Di Blasio, Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli, Marianna Migliaccio
University of Parthenope-Giacomo Belgiorno
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2460
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The paper reports an experimental study on the effect of compression ratio variation on the performance and pollutant emissions of a single-cylinder light-duty research diesel engine operating in DF mode.The architecture of the combustion system as well as the injection system represents the state-of-the-art of the automotive diesel technology. Two pistons with different bowl volume were selected for the experimental campaign, corresponding to two CR values: 16.5 and 14.5. The designs of the piston bowls were carefully performed with the 3D simulation in order to maintain the same air flow structure at the piston top dead center, thus keeping the same in-cylinder flow characteristics versus CR.The engine tests choice was performed to be representative of actual working conditions of an automotive light-duty diesel engine. Moreover, the test methodology was designed in order to carry out emission and fuel consumption (FC) estimation on New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test procedure. A proper engine Dual-Fuel calibration was set-up respecting prefixed limits in terms of in-cylinder peak firing pressure, cylinder pressure rise, IMEP cycle-to-cycle variation, and gaseous emissions.The…
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