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A Shoulder Injury Criterion for the EuroSID-2re Applicable in a Large Loading Condition Spectrum of the Military Domain

CEESAR (Nanterre, France)-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit
DGA TT (Bourges, France)-Denis Lafont
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0006
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) is an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD) from the automotive domain designed for lateral impact. Since the 2000’s, it has also been used by NATO armies to assess the risk of injury to armored vehicles occupants submitted to an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) attack. The resulting loading conditions from an explosion can vary a lot in term of impact velocity and duration. They range from high velocity impacts (~28 m/s), characterized by a short duration (~10 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion, to low velocity impacts (~4 m/s), ch aracterized by a long duration (~50 ms) similar to the automotive domain. The goal of the study is to develop a shoulder injury criterion for the EuroSID-2re that is relevant over the whole loading conditions spectrum of the military domain.For that purpose, thirty-three laboratory ES-2re tests are conducted to replicate four PMHS shoulder impactor test series from the literature. Each test series corresponds to a different loading condition in term of impact velocity and duration: [28 m/s, 3 ms],…
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Assessment of Several THOR Thoracic Injury Criteria based on a New Post Mortem Human Subject Test Series and Recommendations

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA Renault-Xavier Trosseille, Philippe Petit
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0012
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Several studies, available in the literature, were conducted to establish the most relevant criterion for predicting the thoracic injury risk on the THOR dummy. The criteria, such as the maximum deflection or a combination of parameters including the difference between the chest right and left deflections, were all developed based on given samples of Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). However, they were not validated against independent data and they are not always consistent with the observations from field data analysis. For this reason, 8 additional PMHS and matching THOR tests were carried out to assess the ability of the criteria to predict risks.Accident investigations showed that a reduction of the belt loads reduces the risk of rib fractures. Two configurations with different levels of force limitation were therefore chosen. A configuration representing an average European vehicle was chosen as a reference. It consists of a 3-point belt with a 3.5 kN and then 2 kN digressive limiter, combined with a 54-liter airbag. For better reproducibility and durability, the tests were performed with a pre-inflated bag…
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Far Side Impact Injury Threshold Recommendations Based on 6 Paired WorldSID / Post Mortem Human Subjects Tests

CEESAR (Nanterre - France)-Jérome Uriot, David Poulard, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault (Nanterre - France)-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0005
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
Far side has been identified in the literature as a potential cause of numerous injuries and fatalities. Euro NCAP developed a far side test protocol to be performed to assess adult protection. A monitoring phase was undertaken between January 2018 and December 2019, and the far side assessment will become part of the rating for all vehicles launched in 2020 onward.A test buck was developed and 6 paired WorldSID / Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) were subjected to the test protocol proposed by Euro NCAP to contribute to the development of limits. The buck consisted of a rigid seat and a rigid central console covered with 50 mm of Ethafoam TM 180 with a density of 16 kg/m3. The buck was mounted on the sled with an angle of 75° between the X axis of the vehicle and the X axis of the sled.The peak head excursion was compared between PMHS and the WorldSID dummy. It was found reasonably similar. However, the dummy repeatability was found to be poor.Out of 6 tests conducted on 6…
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Human Shoulder Response to Lateral Impact in Intermediate Loading Conditions Between High-Velocity, Short-Duration and Low-Velocity, Long-Duration

CEESAR (Nanterre, France)-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Potier, Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Baudrit
DGA TT (Bourges, France)-Denis Lafont
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
The EuroSID-2re (ES-2re) Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) commonly known as the crash test dummy is also used in the military domain to assess the risk of injury of armored vehicles occupants from lateral impact. The loading conditions range from low velocity - long duration impacts (4 m/s - 50 ms) similar to the automotive domain, to high velocity - short duration impacts (28 m/s - 3 ms) corresponding to cases where the panel deforms under an explosion. The human shoulder response to lateral impact was investigated at bounds of the loading condition spectrum previously mentioned, and also at intermediate conditions (14 m/s - 9 ms) in previous studies. The aim of the current study is to provide additional insight at the intermediate loading conditions which are not found in the literature.Eight pure lateral shoulder impact tests were performed on Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) using an 8.1 kg rigid impactor at velocities ranging from 3.3 m/s to 8.8 m/s with the duration ranging from 25 ms to 35 ms. The PMHS were instrumented with accelerometers…
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Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining of the Small Female

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
Faurecia Automotive Seating-Olivier Richard
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
In the last decade, extensive efforts have been made to understand the physics of submarining and its consequences in terms of abdominal injuries. For that purpose, 27 Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) tests were performed in well controlled conditions on a sled and response corridors were provided to assess the biofidelity of dummies or human body models. All these efforts were based on the 50th percentile male.In parallel, efforts were initiated to transfer the understanding of submarining and the prediction criteria to the THOR dummies. Both the biofidelity targets and the criteria were scaled down from the 50th percentile male to the 5th percentile THOR female. The objective of this project was to run a set of reference PMHS tests in order to check the biofidelity of the THOR F05 in terms of submarining. Three series of tests were performed on nine PMHS, the first one was designed to avoid submarining, the second and third ones were designed to result in submarining.In the first configuration, no submarining was observed in 3 cases out of 4…
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Relation Between Sacroilium and Other Pelvic Fractures Based on Real-World Automotive Accidents

CEESAR (Nanterre - France)-Sophie Cuny, Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault (Nanterre - France)-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
Published 2018-11-12 by The Stapp Association in United States
The study firstly aimed at looking whether sacroilium (SI) fractures could be sustained as unique pelvic injuries in side impact real world automotive accidents. Secondarily, the sacroilium fractures observed in conjunction with other pelvic fractures were analyzed to investigate the existence of injury association patterns.Two real world accident databases were searched for SI fractures. The occupants selected were front car passengers older than 16, involved in side, oblique or frontal impact, with AIS2+ pelvic injuries. In frontal impact, only the belted occupants were selected. The cases were sorted by the principal direction of force (dof) and the type of pelvic injury, namely SI, pubic rami, iliac wing, acetabulum, pubic symphysis, and sacrum injuries. The relation between SI and pubic rami injuries were investigated first.The first database is an accident database composed of cases collected in France by car manufacturers over a period of approximately 40 years. In total it contains approximately 28 000 occupants involved in all types of accident configurations. The occupant injuries, as well as the vehicle deformations, are described in detail. The…
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Update of the WorldSID 50th Male Pelvic Injury Criterion and Risk Curve

CEESAR-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit
LAB PSA RENAULT-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Petit et al. 2015 and Lebarbé et al. 2016 reported on two studies where the injury mechanism and threshold of the sacroiliac joint were investigated in two slightly oblique crash test conditions from 18 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) tests. They concluded that the sacroiliac joint fractures were associated with pubic rami fractures. These latter being reported to occur first in the time history. Therefore it was recommended not to define a criterion specific for the sacroiliac joint.In 2012, injury risk curves were published for the WorldSID dummy by Petitjean et al. For the pelvis, dummy and PMHS paired tests from six configurations were used (n = 55). All of these configurations were pure lateral impacts. In addition, the sacroiliac joint and femur neck loads were not recorded, and the dummy used was the first production version (WorldSID revision 1). Since that time, the WorldSID was updated several times, including changes in the pelvis area.In the present study, the two slightly oblique PMHS test configurations of 2015 and 2016 (n = 18) as well as three of the reference…
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Investigation of Pelvic Injuries on Eighteen Post Mortem Human Subjects Submitted to Oblique Lateral Impacts

CEESAR-Matthieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Two test configurations were selected from full scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th dummy resulting in high sacroiliac joint loads and low pubic symphysis force, i.e. severe conditions for the sacroiliac joint. The two test conditions were reproduced in laboratory using a 150-155 kg guided probe propelled respectively at 8 m/s and 7.5 m/s and with different shapes and orientations for the plate impacting the pelvis. Nine Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) were tested in each of the two configurations (eighteen PMHS in total). In order to get information on the time of fracture, eleven strain gauges were glued on the pelvic bone of each PMHS.Results - In the first configuration, five PMHS out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. All five presented sacroiliac joint injuries associated with pubic area injuries. In the second configuration, four specimens out of nine sustained AIS2+ pelvic injuries. Two of them presented sacroiliac joint fractures associated with pubic area injuries. The other two presented…
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Reference PMHS Sled Tests to Assess Submarining

CEESAR-Jérôme Uriot, Pascal Potier, Pascal Baudrit
Faurecia Automotive Seating-Olivier Richard
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
Sled tests focused on pelvis behavior and submarining can be found in the literature. However, they were performed either with rigid seats or with commercial seats. The objective of this study was to get reference tests to assess the submarining ability of dummies in more realistic conditions than on rigid seat, but still in a repeatable and reproducible setup. For this purpose, a semi-rigid seat was developed, which mimics the behavior of real seats, although it is made of rigid plates and springs that are easy to reproduce and simulate with an FE model. In total, eight PMHS sled tests were performed on this semi-rigid seat to get data in two different configurations: first in a front seat configuration that was designed to prevent submarining, then in a rear seat configuration with adjusted spring stiffness to generate submarining.All subjects sustained extensive rib fractures from the shoulder belt loading. No pelvis fractures and no submarining were observed in the front seat configuration, but two subjects sustained lumbar vertebrae fractures. In the rear seat configuration, all subjects…
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A Comparison of Sacroiliac and Pubic Rami Fracture Occurrences in Oblique Side Impact Tests on Nine Post Mortem Human Subjects

CEESAR-Mathieu Lebarbé, Pascal Baudrit, Pascal Potier
LAB PSA Peugeot Citroën Renault-Philippe Petit, Xavier Trosseille
Published 2015-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
The WorldSID dummy can be equipped with both a pubic and a sacroiliac joint (S-I joint) loadcell. Although a pubic force criterion and the associated injury risk curve are currently available and used in regulation (ECE95, FMVSS214), as of today injury mechanisms, injury criteria, and injury assessment reference values are not available for the sacroiliac joint itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the sacroiliac joint injury mechanism. Three configurations were identified from full-scale car crashes conducted with the WorldSID 50th percentile male where the force passing through the pubis in all three tests was approximately 1500 N while the sacroiliac Fy / Mx peak values were 4500 N / 50 Nm, 2400 N / 130 Nm, and 5300 N / 150 Nm, respectively. These tests were reproduced using a 150 kg guided probe impacting Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) at 8 m/s, 5.4 m/s and 7.5 m/s. The shape and the orientation of the impacting face of the probe were selected to match the WorldSID pubic Fy and sacroiliac Fy / Mx…
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