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Analysis of Performance and Emission of Diesel Engines Operating on Palm Oil Biodiesel

University of South Australia-Saiful Bari, Chi Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0336
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fast consumption of fossil fuels is demanding researchers to find few potential alternative fuels that meet sustainable energy demand in the near future with least environmental impact. Future energy system needs to be cost-efficient, renewable, and safe to handle. Biodiesel is expected to be the future energy source that meets all the environmental norms. The use of biodiesel in Internal Combustion (IC) engines represents an alternative clean energy source compared to hydrocarbon fuels that generate emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), Sulfur Oxides (SO) and particulate matters (PM). This paper describes the importance of Palm Oil Diesel (POD) as an alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Simulations are carried out with ANSYS FORTE software with POD. The engine chosen is a 26-kW diesel-gen-set. The engine geometry is drawn in SOLIDWORKS using dimensions of the actual diesel engine. Then, the geometry is imported in ANSYS FORTE and simulations are carried out with diesel and compared with the experimental data which shows around 97% accuracy. Then, a CHEMKIN file is created…
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Parametric Optimization of a Rankine Cycle Based Waste Heat Recovery System for a 1.1 MW Diesel-Gen-Set

Univ. of South Australia-Saiful Bari
University of South Australia-Wei Zhi Loh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0890
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a 1.1 MW diesel-gen-set is used to design a Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system to generate additional power using Rankine cycle (RC). A computer code is written in commercial Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software to solve equations of overall energy and mass balance, heat transfer, evaporation, condensation, frictional and heat losses for heat exchangers, turbine, pumps, cooling tower and connecting pipes connecting different components. After initial design of the WHR system, manufacturers are contacted to find out the availability of parts, and then, accordingly the design is changed. There are several heat exchangers required to heat the water from liquid to superheated steam and then, it is passed to the turbine. Then, after the expansion in the turbine, it is passed to the condenser to condense the steam to water. Optimization is done on the heat exchangers, focusing on the tube length and diameter. The tube length is changed in accordance to the availability on the market, where it comes in 2 m length. At the rated power of the gen-set, with…
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Effect of Exhaust Runner Length, Valve Timing and Lift on the Performance of a Gasoline Engine

University of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion (IC) engine exhaust system can influence the engine’s performance in a significant way. This paper shows that a variable exhaust manifold runner length can improve the engine performance in terms of its output torque by over 10% especially at lower engine speed. Similarly, other exhaust systems such as valve timing and valve lift can improve the performance of the engine in different magnitudes. But when smaller improvements are clubbed together, a significant improvement can be achieved. This paper researches first the exhaust runner length on the engine’s performance. Then, the exhaust valve timing is adjusted to further improve the engine torque produced for the exhaust runner lengths analyzed. Study of a combined effect showed that the runner length requirement shifts slightly as the valve timing is changed. Due to practical limitations foreseen in having longer runner lengths and limitations in the rate of runner length variation, certain areas have to undergo through a region where the torque values are as low as they can be. Though this happens in every single exhaust system…
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Waste Heat Recovery System for a Turbocharged Diesel Generator at Full and Part Load Operating Conditions Using Rankine and Organic Rankine Cycles

University of North Carolina Charlotte-Shreyas Joshi, Saisri Aditya Kanchibhotla
University of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Waste Heat Recovery System (WHRS) is used to extract heat from the exhaust gas from internal combustion (IC) engines to produce additional power with increase in overall efficiency of the engine. Amongst various WHRS, this paper focuses on WHRS using Rankine Cycle (RC) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). A 100 kVA (80 kW engine) diesel generator was used for this research. Water, R245fa, and R134a were used as the working fluids for the cycle. To assess the performance of WHRS, the system was designed for 80 kW, 70 kW and 60 kW loads and then, for each designed load the WHRS was run for other loads and then compared. Assessment provide simulation results of RC and ORC using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. It was found that using water as the working fluid around 20% additional power was achieved. But it limited the working range of the system making it unsuitable for lower loads of 10 and 20 kW for this generator. R245fa and R134a on the other hand provided comparatively less efficiency but covered…
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Optimum Design Point to Recover Maximum Possible Exhaust Heat Over the Operating Range of a Small Diesel Truck Using Bottoming Rankine Cycle

University of North Carolina Charlotte-Saisri Aditya Kanchibhotla
University of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on waste heat recovery (WHR) system, which is an efficient technology to reduce fuel and vehicle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per kW of power produced. Wide variations of power of a vehicle make it difficult to design a WHR system which can operate optimally at all powers. The exhaust temperature from the engine is critical to design a WHR system. Higher the temperature higher will be the gain from the WHR system. However, as power drops the exhaust temperature drops which makes the WHR system perform poorly at lower powers. In this research, a small diesel truck engine was used to design a WHR system to produce additional power using a Rankine cycle (RC). The WHR system was designed at the rated power and speed of 42.8 kW and 2600 rpm, respectively. At this design point, around 15% additional power improvement was achieved resulting around 13% break specific fuel consumption reduction. Next, the performances of the WHR system were evaluated at different operating points lower than the rated power of the engine covering…
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Effects of Variable Intake Valve Timings and Valve Lift on the Performance and Fuel Efficiency of an Internal Combustion Engine

University of North Carolina Charlotte-Pauras Sawant
University of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, automakers are expected to increase the average fuel economy of their vehicles to 54.5 miles per gallon from the current 24.8 miles per gallon by 2025. This research aims at proposing a feasible solution to narrow down the gap between the current and expected fuel economy of the vehicles, yet maintaining the engine’s original performance. A standard model of the KTM 510 cc single cylinder, fuel injected, internal combustion engine (IC) engine is modelled and simulated in Ricardo Wave software package to map the stock engine performance and specific fuel consumption at wide open throttle (WOT). The baseline simulation model is validated against the experimental readings with 98% accuracy. The intake valve timings (IVO, IVC), valve lift and profile, being major contributors to the wave and gas dynamics in the combustion chamber are then varied at all engine speeds to capture the amplified induction pressure wave to boost the volumetric and thermal efficiency and attain optimized engine performance. As a combined effect of varying the above parameters,…
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Effect of Integrating Variable Intake Runner Diameter and Variable Intake Valve Timing on an SI Engine’s Performance

University of North Carolina Charlotte-Shashank Ghodke
University of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Design of the intake system of an internal combustion (IC) engine is one of the critical parameters to improve the performance of an engine. Induction pressure waves (compression and rarefaction waves) are created in the intake runner due to valve operations. If the intake runner is tuned correctly, a compression wave can boost the intake air flow improving the volumetric efficiency which increases the torque and power of the engine. In this research, the intake runner diameter and valve timing were varied individually, after which both were varied together to achieve optimum volumetric efficiency. A single-cylinder, four-stroke spark-ignited 510 cc naturally aspirated engine was used for the analysis. Simulations were carried out using engine simulation software Ricardo Wave to find the effect of intake runner diameter and timing on the engine performance. A chassis-dyno test was made on the engine to know its factory state performance and compared the torque and power with the simulation data. As a result, the validated model is found to have a deviation of around 10.0% from the actual chassis dyno…
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Design and Optimization of Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery System Based on Rankine Cycle and Organic Cycles

University of North Carolina Charlotte-Saisri Aditya Kanchibhotla, Shreyas Joshi
University of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a waste heat recovery (WHR) system is designed to recover heat from the exhaust of a diesel-gen-set having an engine of 26.57 kW. The Rankine Cycle (RC) and the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) are used to produce additional power using water, R113, R124 and R245fa as the working fluids. Water as the working fluid gives the best improvement of 13.8% power improvement with 12.2% bsfc reduction, but fails to produce any power at the lowest operating power of 5.8 kW due to lower exhaust temperature and higher boiling point of water. This is when the WHR system is designed at the rated power of 26.57 kW. Designing at lower power of 20.0 kW improves the enhancements at this and lower powers but reduces the improvement at the rated power of 26.57 kW. This design again fails to produce any power at the lowest power. On the other hand, R113, R124 and R245fa which have much lower boiling points manage to produce additional power at the lowest power, but the improvements at other…
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An Experimental Study of a Waste Heat Recovery System Connected to a Diesel-Gen-Set

Univ. of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In general, diesel engines have an efficiency of about 35% and hence, a considerable amount of energy is expelled to the ambient air. In water-cooled engines, about 25%, 33% and 7% of the input energy are wasted in the coolant, exhaust gas, and friction, respectively. The heat from the exhaust gas of diesel engines can be an important heat source to provide additional power and improve overall engine efficiency. Studies related to the application of recoverable heat to produce additional power in medium capacity diesel engines (< 100 kW) using separate Rankine cycle are scarce. To recover heat from the exhaust of the engine, an efficient heat exchanger is necessary. For this type of application, the heat exchangers are needed to be designed in such a way that it can handle the heat load with reasonable size, weight and pressure drop. This paper describes the study of a diesel generator-set attached with an exhaust heat recovery system. Superheated steam was produced by using two heat exchangers. In authors’ previous study, optimizations using CFD simulations were…
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Influence of Varying Height of Guide Vanes on the Performance of a Diesel Engine Run with Biodiesel

Univ. of South Australia-Saiful Bari
Universiti Teknologi MARA-Idris Saad
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine can be run with biodiesel which has the potential to supplement the receding supply of crude oil. As biodiesel possess similar physiochemical properties to diesel, most diesel engines can run with biodiesel with minimum modifications. However, the viscosity of biodiesel is higher, and the calorific value is lower than diesel. Therefore, when biodiesel is used in diesel engines, it is usually blended with diesel at different proportions. Use of 100% biodiesel in diesel engines shows inferior performance of having lower power and torque. Improving in-cylinder airflow characteristic to break down higher viscous biodiesel and to improve air-fuel mixing are the aims of this research. Therefore, guide vanes in the intake runner were used in this research to improve the performance of diesel engine run with biodiesel. Previous research done by the authors using CFD cold flow simulations (no combustion) showed an improvement of air-biodiesel mixing with guide vanes installed into the intake runner in a diesel engine. In this research, vane height was varied experimentally to find the effect of vane height on…
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