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Environmental Assessment of the End-of-Life Phase of Alternative and Conventional Propulsion Systems in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Florian Bach
TU Muenchen-Benedikt Stumper
Published 2019-02-18 by SAE International in United States
The number of vehicles being sold is steadily increasing, as well as the amount of processed resources. Moreover, alternative powertrain concepts open up a new field of materials such as rare-earth metals, lithium, and cobalt. This results in a growing importance and complexity of the vehicle end-of-life phase and thus demands for a more detailed environmental evaluation and an integration into life cycle assessment. Due to high recycling rates, established recycling routes, and a low environmental impact regarding the materials used for conventional propulsion systems, by now the recycling is mostly neglected within the life cycle assessment of vehicles. The introduced materials for alternative concepts challenge this method with new and complex processes, the lack of available recycling routes, selective recovery of only few materials, as well as the threat of landfill, an increased share of incineration, resource shortfalls, and resource exploitation. This study investigates the state of the art of recycling processes for drive components used within conventional and alternative concepts. Furthermore, a new methodical framework to evaluate the environmental impact of the end-of-life…
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Investigation of Flame Propagation Description in Quasi-Dimensional Spark Ignition Engine Modeling

Audi AG-Ulrich Baretzky, Hartmut Diel, Sebastian Wohlgemuth, Gordon Röttger
FKFS-Michael Grill
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The engine development process has been enhanced significantly by virtual engineering methods during the last decades. In terms of in-cylinder flow field, charge flow and combustion modelling, 3D-CFD (three dimensional) simulations enable detailed analysis and extended investigations in order to gain additional knowledge about design parameters. However, the computational time of the 3D-CFD is an obvious drawback that prevents a reasonable application for extensive analysis with varying speed, load and transient conditions. State-of-the-art 0D (zero dimensional) approaches close the gap between the demand of high computational efficiency and a satisfying accordance with experimental data. Recent improvements of phenomenological combustion approaches for gasoline spark ignition engines deal with the consideration of detailed flow parameters, the accuracy of the laminar flame speed calculation and the prediction of the knock limit. Little attention has been given to the influence of different combustion chamber designs on the prediction capability so far. This leads to an often used simplification consisting of a combustion chamber modeled as a disk and an acceptable inaccuracy of combustion modelling. With an increasing deviation of…
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Methodical Selection of Sustainable Fuels for High Performance Racing Engines

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Sebastian Wohlgemuth, Florian Bach
Universitat Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
As the importance of sustainability increases and dominates the powertrain development within the automotive sector, this issue has to be addressed in motorsports as well. The development of sustainable high-performance fuels defined for the use in motorsports offers technical and environmental potential with the possibility to increase the sustainability of motorsports at the same or even a better performance level. At the moment race cars are predominantly powered by fossil fuels. However due to the emerging shift regarding the focus of the regulations towards high efficient powertrains during the last years the further development of the used fuels gained in importance. Moreover during the last decades a huge variety of sustainable fuels emerged that offer a range of different characteristics and that are produced based on waste materials or carbon dioxide. This study investigates the question of which sustainable fuels offer the characteristics suitable for high-performance race engines. Equivalents to gasoline, diesel and natural gas are examined separately in order to present the options with various engine concepts. The requirements for a high-performance fuel are…
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Virtual Optimization of Race Engines Through an Extended Quasi Steady State Lap Time Simulation Approach

AUDI AG-Ulrich Baretzky, Hartmut Diel, Sebastian Wohlgemuth
FKFS-Michael Grill
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Minimizing the lap time for a given race track is the main target in racecar development. In order to achieve the highest possible performance of the vehicle configuration the mutual interaction at the level of assemblies and components requires a balance between the advantages and disadvantages for each design decision. Especially the major shift in the focus of racecar powerunit development to high efficiency powertrains is driving a development of lean boosted and rightsized engines. In terms of dynamic engine behavior the time delay from requested to provided torque could influence the lap time performance. Therefore, solely maximizing the full load behavior objective is insufficient to achieve minimal lap time.By means of continuous predictive virtual methods throughout the whole development process, the influence on lap time by dynamic power lags, e.g. caused by the boost system, can be recognized efficiently even in the early concept phase. As a first step, this paper presents a novel method that combines detailed 1D (one dimensional) gas dynamic engine models with the quasi steady state (QSS) lap time method.…
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Particulate Filter Design for High Performance Diesel Engine Application

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Audi AG-Ulrich Baretzky, Gunter Forbriger, Thibaut Meunier
The Dow Chemical Company-Cheng G. Li, Hein Koelman, Ravi Ramanathan
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1747
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
A catalyzed ceramic filter has been used on diesel engines for diesel particulate matter emission control. A key design criteria for a diesel particulate filter is to maximize DPF performance, i.e. low back pressure and compact size as well as near continuous regeneration operation. Based upon the modeling and deep understanding of material properties, a DPF system design has been successfully applied on a high performance diesel engine exhaust system, such as the Audi R10 TDI, the first diesel racing car that won the most prestigious endurance race in the world: the 24 hours of Le Mans in both 2006 and 2007. The design concept can be used for other materials and applications
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The Direct Injection System of the 2001 Audi Turbo V8 Le Mans Engines

AUDI AG-Ulrich Baretzky, Tomas Andor, Hartmut Diel, Wolfgang Ullrich
Published 2002-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Audi's successful 3.6 L V8 twin turbo Le Mans engine of 2000 has been developed to fuel direct injection (FSI®). Most of the modifications have been done in the area of the cylinderhead. Simulation and flow test bench work helped to define the basic parameters. The FSI® engine has a reduction in fuel consumption of 8 - 10 %, up to 9 % more torque throughout the entire speed range and much better driveability.
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