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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry 2.5-Liter Atkinson Cycle Engine with Cooled-EGR

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Southwest Research Institute-Josh Alden
US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Mark Stuhldreher, Daniel Barba, Charles Schenk, Stanislav Bohac, Joseph McDonald, Paul Dekraker
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-0249
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry A25A-FKS 4-cylinder, 2.5-liter, naturally aspirated, Atkinson Cycle engine with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (cEGR) was benchmarked. The engine was tested on an engine dynamometer with and without its 8-speed automatic transmission, and with the engine wiring harness tethered to a complete vehicle parked outside of the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, onboard diagnostics (OBD) data, and Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded. This paper documents the test results under idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation. Motoring torque, wide open throttle (WOT) torque and fuel consumption are measured during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels. The design and performance of this 2018 2.5-liter engine is described and compared to Toyota’s published data and to EPA’s previous projections of the efficiency of an Atkinson Cycle engine with cEGR. The Brake Thermal Efficiency…
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Constructing Engine Maps for Full Vehicle Simulation Modeling

US Environmental Protection Agency-Paul Dekraker, Daniel Barba, Andrew Moskalik, Karla Butters
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected a variety of engine and vehicle test data to assess the effectiveness of new automotive technologies in meeting greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emission standards and to monitor their behavior in real world operation. EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate GHG emissions from vehicles using various combinations of advanced technologies and has been refined using data from testing conducted at EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory.This paper describes a process for constructing complete engine maps using engine dynamometer and in-vehicle test data for use in ALPHA or any other full vehicle simulation which performs similar analyses. The paper reviews how to use available steady state and transient test data to characterize different operating conditions, and then combine the data to construct a complete engine map suitable for ALPHA model simulation. The paper also discusses the use of default values when specific engine test data are unavailable. Finally, tools used to assess the quality of the generated complete engine maps are…
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Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

Honeywell Transportation Systems-Aaron Birckett
Southwest Research Institute-Dennis Robertson, Graham Conway, Chris Chadwell
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The thermal efficiency benefits of low-pressure (LP) exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in spark-ignition engine combustion are well known. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of LP-EGR for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting. Variable nozzle turbines (VNTs) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures (EGTs). The use of a single VNT as a boost device may provide a lower-cost option compared to two-stage boosting systems or 48 V electronic boost devices for some LP-EGR applications. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speeds, loads, EGR rates and fuel types. Using the model, an assessment of VNT performance was performed using compressor and turbine maps made available from Honeywell Transportation Systems. Results show that the single VNT device supports LP-EGR across the operating map while maintaining realistic full-load performance and maintaining or improving upon thermal efficiency…
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Benchmarking a 2016 Honda Civic 1.5-Liter L15B7 Turbocharged Engine and Evaluating the Future Efficiency Potential of Turbocharged Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul, Daniel Barba, Joseph McDonald, Stanislav Bohac, Paul Dekraker, Andrew Moskalik
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0319
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty (LD) automotive technologies to support the setting of appropriate national greenhouse gas (GHG) standards and to evaluate the impact of new technologies on in-use emissions, a 2016 Honda Civic with a 4-cylinder 1.5-liter L15B7 turbocharged engine and continuously variable transmission (CVT) was benchmarked. The test method involved installing the engine and its CVT in an engine-dynamometer test cell with the engine wiring harness tethered to its vehicle parked outside the test cell. Engine and transmission torque, fuel flow, key engine temperatures and pressures, and onboard diagnostics (OBD)/Controller Area Network (CAN) bus data were recorded.This article documents the test results for idle, low, medium, and high load engine operation, as well as motoring torque, wide-open throttle (WOT) torque, and fuel consumption during transient operation using both EPA Tier 2 and Tier 3 test fuels. Particular attention is given to characterizing enrichment control during high load engine operation. Results are used to create complete engine fuel consumption and efficiency maps and estimate CO2…
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Evaluation of Emerging Technologies on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Graham Conway, Dennis Robertson, Chris Chadwell
US Environmental Protection Agency-Joseph McDonald, John Kargul, Daniel Barba, Mark Stuhldreher
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Low-pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LP- EGR) combined with higher compression ratio, is a technology package that has been a focus of research to increase engine thermal efficiency of downsized, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Research shows that the addition of LP-EGR reduces the propensity to knock that is experienced at higher compression ratios [1]. To investigate the interaction and compatibility between increased compression ratio and LP-EGR, a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI engine was modified to run with LP-EGR at a higher compression ratio (12:1 versus 10.5:1) via a piston change. This paper presents the results of the baseline testing on an engine run with a prototype controller and initially tuned to mimic an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) baseline control strategy running on premium fuel (92.8 anti-knock index). This paper then presents test results after first adding LP-EGR to the baseline engine, and then also increasing the compression ratio (CR) using 12:1 pistons. As a last step, the 10.5 CR engine with LP-EGR was run on regular fuel (87.7 anti-knock index) to verify that…
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Testing and Benchmarking a 2014 GM Silverado 6L80 Six Speed Automatic Transmission

EPA Office of Mobile Sources-Mark Stuhldreher
US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba
Published 2017-11-17 by SAE International in United States
As part of its midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 light-duty greenhouse gas (GHG) standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been acquiring fuel efficiency data from testing of recent engines and vehicles. The benchmarking data are used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model created to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.For complete powertrain modeling, ALPHA needs both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission efficiency maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has previously relied on contractors to provide full characterization of transmission efficiency maps. To add to its benchmarking resources, EPA developed a streamlined more cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to broadly characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This technique targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over the EPA city and highway drive cycles.This paper describes the method and test results of the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data. With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling…
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Fleet-Level Modeling of Real World Factors Influencing Greenhouse Gas Emission Simulation in ALPHA

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

US Environmental Protection Agency-Paul Dekraker, John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0899
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of internal energy flows in the model.In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2017-2025 light-duty GHG emissions rule, ALPHA has been updated utilizing newly acquired data from model year 2013-2016 engines and vehicles. Simulations conducted with ALPHA provide data on the effectiveness of various GHG reduction technologies, and reveal synergies that exist between technologies. The ALPHA model has been validated against a variety of vehicles with different powertrain configurations and GHG reduction technologies.This paper will present an overview of the laboratory benchmarking that was done to support validation of the ALPHA model. The paper discusses a variety of real world factors that influence the simulation of fuel economy and GHG emissions that are often overlooked. Updates have been made to the ALPHA model to…
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Investigating the Effect of Advanced Automatic Transmissions on Fuel Consumption Using Vehicle Testing and Modeling

SAE International Journal of Engines

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Aaron Hula, Daniel Barba, John Kargul
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-1142
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In preparation for the midterm evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Greenhouse Gas (LD GHG) emissions standards, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is refining and revalidating their Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model.As part of the validation of ALPHA, the EPA obtained model year 2014 Dodge Chargers equipped with 3.6 liter V6 engines and either a NAG1 five-speed automatic transmission or an 845RE eight-speed automatic transmission. Vehicles were tested on a chassis dynamometer; test results showed eight-speed vehicles averaging 6.5% reduction in unadjusted combined city-highway fuel consumption compared to five-speed vehicles. In addition, an 845RE eight-speed transmission was obtained and tested in a standalone transmission test rig. The measured transmission parameters were used in ALPHA to simulate the behavior and fuel consumption of the eight-speed Dodge Charger. A companion…
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Estimating GHG Reduction from Combinations of Current Best-Available and Future Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for a Midsized Car Using EPA’s ALPHA Model

US Environmental Protection Agency-John Kargul, Andrew Moskalik, Daniel Barba, Kevin Newman, Paul Dekraker
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from light-duty vehicles[1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types with different powertrain technologies, showing realistic vehicle behavior, and auditing of all internal energy flows in the model. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. In preparation for the midterm evaluation of the light-duty GHG emission standards for model years 2022-2025, EPA is refining and revalidating ALPHA using newly acquired data from model year 2013-2015 engines and vehicles. From its database of engine and vehicle benchmarking data EPA identified the most efficient, engines, transmissions and vehicle technologies, and then used ALPHA to model a midsized car incorporating combinations of these existing technologies which minimize GHG emissions. In a similar analysis, ALPHA was used to estimate the GHG emissions from future low-GHG technology packages potentially available in model year 2025. This paper presents the ALPHA model inputs, results and the lessons learned during this modeling…
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Modeling of a Conventional Mid-Size Car with CVT Using ALPHA and Comparable Powertrain Technologies

US Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin A. Newman, Mark Doorlag, Daniel Barba
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) tool was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles [1]. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulation capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The software tool is a MATLAB/Simulink based desktop application. The ALPHA model has been updated from the previous version to include more realistic vehicle behavior and now includes internal auditing of all energy flows in the model [2]. As a result of the model refinements and in preparation for the mid-term evaluation (MTE) of the 2022-2025 LD GHG emissions standards, the model is being revalidated with newly acquired vehicle data.In the effort to model the current and future US Light-Duty fleet there are times when complete and exact engine and powertrain component data are unavailable and must be approximated using components with comparable levels of performance and technology. This paper presents the testing and ALPHA modeling of a CVT-equipped 2013 Nissan Altima 2.5S using comparable powertrain technology inputs. A brief…
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